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Karla Sanchez

on 2 April 2015

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Transcript of 4 STATES OF MATTER

Gas is an air like fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available, irrespective of its quantity.

gas facts
Liquid has a consistency like that of water or oil; flowing freely but of constant volume.
In a solid, particles are packed tightly together so they are unable to move about very much.
The electrons of each atom are in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are fixed in their position.
Solids have a definite shape.
They do not conform top the shape of the container in which they are placed.
Solids also have definite volume.
The particles of a solid are already so tightly packed together so that increasing the pressure will not compress the solid to a smaller volume.
Solid is firm and stable in shape; non like liquid nor fluid.
A solid has strong bonds as the picture o your right show.
The molecules that make up a solid are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. They are held firmly in place but can vibrate within a limited area
The molecules that make up a liquid flow easily around one another. They are kept from flying apart by attractive forces between them.
solid facts
Solids keep a fined volume and shape
Solids aren't easily compressed.
Solids also don't flow freely.
The molecules that make up a gas fly in all directions at great speeds.
The molecules of gas are so far apart that the attractive forces between them are insignificant.
Particles of a liquid tend to be held by weak intermolecular attraction rather than moving freely as the particles of a gas will. This cohesive force pulls the particles together to form drops or streams.
In the liquid phase, the particles of a substance have kinetic energy than those in solid.
liquid particles are not held in a regular arrangement, but are still very close to each other so liquids have a definite volume.
Liquids, like solids, cannot be compressed. And liquids can assume the shape of their containers.
Particles of a liquid have just enough room to flow around each other, so liquids have an indefinite shape.
In a liquid, when the buoyant force is equal to the force of gravity pulling down on the object's mas, the object placed in the liquid WILL float.
liquid facts
When a gas is put under pressure (by reducing the volume of the container), the space between the particles are reduced, so the pressure exerted by their collisions increases.
Gas particles have a great space between them. If unconfined, the particles will spread out indefinitely; if confined, the particles will expand to fill the container.
Gas has high kinetic energy; gas particles have enough kinetic energy to overcome intermolecular forces that hold solids and liquids together, thus a gas has no
If the volume of the container filled with gas is held constant, but the temperature f the gas increases, then the pressure will also increase.
Gas has no definite volume nor definite shape.
Plasma is not a common state of matter here on Earth, but may be the most common state of matter in the universe.
Plasma is typically used at low pressures (as in the upper atmosphere and in fluorescent lamps) or at very high temperatures (as in stars and nuclear fusion reactions).
plasma facts
Plasma consists of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy.
The noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon) are often used to make glowing signs by using electricity to ionize them to the plasma state.
Stars are essentially superheated balls of plasma.
A plasma is a hot ionized gas consisting of approximately equal numbers of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons.
Because plasmas are made up of electrically charged particles, they are strongly influenced by electric and magnetic fields while neutral gases are not.
Matter is basically a physical substance in general; this occupies space and possesses mass.
There are 4 sates of matter: SOLID, LIQUID, GAS, and PLASMA; these are physical substances.
Matter can be measured in five ways.
created by:
karla sanchez
anette medina
websites we used for our presentation
physical & chemical properties
Physical properties can be observed/measured without changing the composition of matter.
Physical properties include - appearance, texture, color, odor, melting/boiling point, density, weight, shape, and the state of matter.
EXTENSIVE {Mass, Weight, Volume, Length}
INTENSIVE {Color, Odor, Density, Melting/Boiling/Freezing point, Harness.}
Measuring matter
Every object, (seen or not by the human eye) has a mass and every object with mass has matter because it occupies space.
You can use a ruler/tape measure to measure the outside dimensions of an object's matter; these devices can be used to calculate other properties of a specified matter.
A scale can measure the weight of matter. Some scales are small to measure small objects while some scales are made to measure larger masses like us.
A thermometer measures the temperature of matter. Some thermometers work by going inside the matter and finding the inside temperature, while others measure the temperature of air and the microscopic particles that it contains. Temperatures can be classified by Fahrenheit, Celsius, or Kelvin scales
Measuring cups can be used to measure the volume of liquid matter. (Measuring cups provide measurements in ounces and grams).
Graduated cylinders are used in laboratories and in research and allows for a greater degree of precision in measuring the volume. These are also used to measure liquid matter.
Any quality that can be discovered only by changing a substance.
Chemical properties include - flammability, reactivity, oxidation, acidity, toxicity, and heat of combustion.
Chemical properties cannot be determined by touching or viewing an object; the structure of the object must be altered for the chemical properties to be found.
Some examples of chemical change may include:
Iron rusting (iron oxide forms)
Gasoline burning (water vapor and carbon dioxide form)
Eggs cooking (fluid protein molecules uncoil and cross link to form a network)
Bread rising (yeast converts carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas)
Some examples of physical change may include:

Whipping egg whites (air is forced into the fluid, but no new substance is produced)
Boiling water (water molecules are forced away from each other when the liquid changes to vapor, but the molecules are still H2O.)
Dissolving sugar in water (sugar molecules are dispersed within the water, but the individual sugar molecules are unchanged.)
physical and chemical change with examples
Physical change can rearrange molecules, yet doesn't affect their internal structures.
Chemical change is any change that results in the formation of new chemical substances. At the molecular level, chemical change involves making and the breakage of bonds between atoms.
Dicing potatoes (cutting usually separates molecules without changing them.)
Milk souring (sour-tasting lactic acid is produced)
Suntanning (vitamin D and melanin is produced)
phase changes
The change of a solid directly into a gas (heat added).

The change of gas directly into a solid (heat removed).

The change of a liquid into a gas (heat added).

The change of a solid into a liquid (heat added). Ice can turn into a liquid if it melts when heat is added.

The change of a liquid into a solid (heat removed). When you put water into the refrigerator, heat is removed forming the water into ice which turns into a solid.
The density of an object can be found by dividing mas by the volume of the object.
And science folder
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