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Mauritian Blue

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Pravesh Sungkur

on 31 March 2015

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Transcript of Mauritian Blue

MOHUN Divesh
COOTTHEN Rajeswari
NAGIAH Kanusha
PANCHGOLAM Chitranjansing
Literature Review
Local & International cases
Conclusion & Recommendations
Why opt for migrant workers?
Migrant workers in Mauritius
are mainly from :
Sri Lanka
Migrant workers in different industries:
Migrant worker
- a person who moves from one country to another in order to find work or better living conditions.
Why this movement?
Encouraged by:
Demographic shifts
Income inequalities
Climate change

ILO 2014 - est.
232 million
migrant workers worldwide.
Job vacancies and skills gaps can be

Economic growth

can be sustained
Immigrants bring



Low cost
Positive influence

on the productivity/efficiency of local workers.

Migrant workers came to Mauritius to:
Improve their living standard
Working Conditions v/s Motivation
Herzberg - Two Factor Theory
Karl Marx - Father of Communism
(Because he co-wrote the communist Manifesto)
Literature Review
Frederick Taylor(1856)- Father of Scientific management stated that:
- Money Motivates
To earn that
money that they are not getting in their country.
BUT little do they know what is waiting for them.
*Le Cunning Employers
Lol, they think i'm going to give them large sum of money....
Ok, come...you will get your
"large sum of money"
Bad working conditions
If performance low - Pressure on them? Further exploitation?
- Philosopher & historian
His Basic Claims:
Two Classes
Bourgeoisie (Capitalist)
Proletariat (Workers)
- own most of the factors of production
(Land, Capital invested in factories,ect)
- Labour Power
Two key ideas that underlies the Theory of Class struggle:
Marx believed that "production" or work was the thing that gave life, material meaning.
We are by nature social animal
- We work together, we collaborate
- We are more efficient when we share resources
Marx's Criticism:
Capitalist replaces this egalitarian collaboration with conflict
That means it isn't a natural system at all!
Concept of class
capitalist mode of production
He developed these in The Communist Manifesto, the Grundrisse and Das Kapital.
Capital, Surplus Value, and Exploitation
Capitalist starts with
Capital is money used to obtain more money.
Two different arrangements:
Note: C = commodity; M = money
To increase their capital:
Relies on
Workers treat their labor power as a commodity and sell it to factory owners.
buys the workers’ labor power and puts the worker to use making products.
Capitalist sells the product
Capital accumulates through the creation of surplus-value.
How to get surplus value?
commodity’s value
Labor time
...this extra value can only come from the workers
Karl Marx says...
"The capitalist forces the worker to work longer hours to generate this surplus value."
There is also low wages, miserable working conditions, child labour.
This is the essence of exploitation!
1. Are you satisfied with the condition of the dormitory which was provided to you by the company?
The answer: "NO"
2. What is your salary level and are you satisfied with it?
3. Do you work at other places? If yes, why?
According to their contract of employment they are not supposed to work anywhere else.
4. According to you, what is the real problem Bangladeshi people are facing in Mauritius?
At first they said there were no problem but then they rectified this statement.
5. How do you balance your work life?
6. Who works harder? A Mauritian or a Bangladeshi?
Difficulties and Problems
Not allowed to talk to the workers.
Cyclonic weather.
Not able to interview the boss.

10 – 14 people living in a room
Unhygienic kitchen
Small and dirty toilet & Bathroom
Cutting cost by giving them this type of dormitory?
Part of their salary they have to send to their parents. Obviously they would not be satisfied.
Little is left for their daily expenses.
An increase in their salary when there is
They are not rewarded adequately for their effort.
But they do work at other places so as to get some additional money for their expenses.
They left their country in search of better conditions of work but its not the case here.
Even having worked for 4 years their salary has not increased to a justifiable amount
They paid:
Rs. 200,000 - 250,000
...to come here.
For them, its a kind of investment which they wish some returns out of it
Wake up at 6 a.m
Reach and start working at 7 a.m
They come back and do their chores and communicate with their families.
Sometimes they work outside for additional money.
They don’t really have some free times.
During their little free time at night they play indoor games with their roommates.
A Mauritian worker,unlike a Bangladeshi, occupies a more comfortable job.
This might not be fair enough for them as they are not being paid the same wages as Mauritian workers.
However, they are bound to work whatever the situation as they have invested a lot to land here, unaware of the prevalence of injustice in terms of performances with same line of workers.

Local & International cases
Evidences of Exploitation- At National Level
Recent case of exploitation in Mauritius on
5th January 2015
Evidences of Exploitation- At National Level
Evidence on Newspaper
by Mr.
Fayzal Ally Beegun
shows that how the Bangladeshis are being exploited such as:
They have an
miserable living condition
More rigid
rules and regulation
to them.
Threats of deportation
by the employer.
Evidences of Exploitation- At National Level
Further studies done by the Officer of Ministry of Labour shows that in a dormitory at Goodlands:

36 workers
” shared
18 beds in a room
in a small area with obstructed ventilation.

Water tank
which supply them water for their day-to-day running was
filled of algaes

50 employees were on a strike just because they were challenged their food allowance of Rs650 monthly and management had told them their food allowance will further to rise.
Evidences of Exploitation- At National Level
An Article by Maria Louise on the ‘Wordpress’ states that
most migrant worker
were subject to exploitation in
Trend Clothing Ltd
found in Rose-hill.
Evidences of Exploitation- At National Level
In general, according to the Ministry of Labour and Industrial Relation Act-
“ migrants workers should enjoy the same rights as the local worker”

Migrant workers do not voluntarily take advantage of the same benefits as Mauritian workers
Evidences Of Exploitation - International level
Migrant Workers in Qatar:
Qatar has become a focus of international criticism of the
of low-paid migrant workers.

The state announced labor reforms in May 2014 owing to several cases of labour exploitation in the construction industry as the country will host the 2022 World Cup.

Report by the International Trade Union Commission (ITUC) - predicts that
4,000 migrant construction workers will die
in Qatar before the start of the FIFA 2022 World Cup.

Evidence Of Exploitation - International level
The Kafala sponsorship system which operates in Qatar enables employers to exploit employees :
The confiscation of passports.

Refusal to allow migrants to change employer or exit permits.

Refusal to pay migrants’ plane tickets to return home.

Recruitment fees are forbidden by Qatari law.
Evidence Of Exploitation - At International Level
Conditions of forced labor on Saadiyat Island in Abu Dhabi:
some employers are withholding workers’ wages and benefits

failing to reimburse them for recruiting fees

confiscating workers’ passports

housing workers in substandard accommodations

Deported for striking
Workers at N.Y.U.’s Abu Dhabi site faced harsh conditions
Construction workers can live as many as 15 men to a room.

Space is so scarce that a dozen men can share a space of barely 200 square feet.

One of New York University’s labor values states that contractors should not house more than four
people in a bedroom.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Mauritius is seen as a paradise island by so many but unfortunately, there is a small part of our magnificent island that has been hidden to us.
Not only Mauritius but around the world also
Migrants workers often take out
bank loans
sell their family land
secure a job in Mauritius
with the belief they will be able to overcome poverty and be able to help their families financially.

Recruiting agents
Recruiting agents have been making fake contracts or falsifying contract agreements which have led to the misfortune of the migrant workers.
The government should come up with laws in accordance with the International Labour Organisation that are that regulates the recruitment procedures of migrant workers.
Recruiting agents
Clear and Mutual Contract Agreement
- Between both parties.
- Should provide a clear contract agreement.
Living and working conditions
How employers reduce their cost?
Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment
Workers are working here
under obligations
because they have no other options as they are
tied up
by the contract.
recognized by the government
extract exorbitant fees
How to prevent this?
inspection of the contracts
Contract with all the details concerned
Should be
by the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment.
Any breach of contract should be severely punished by the law.
Dormitory's condition
about 10-14 workers sleep in a room
A disappointing and unsatisfactory salary.
Work at different places during their day off
- hire poor infrastructures
- low rental cost
Not even well equipped
should ensure that the dormitory have:
proper hygienic condition
employers make the provision of water supply, electricity and cooking gas.
Regular inspections by sanitary inspectors to ensure that these workers are living in good conditions.
Many workers are working more than their recommended working hours and overtime for which they are not even receiving adequate salary.
Depending on the type of the job, workers should be given all necessary equipment so as to protect themselves.
In many workplaces, medical insurance are provided to local workers only.
should be provided for all migrant workers as well
The Equal Opportunities Act
Every worker should be treated equally; there should not be any kind of discrimination.
Adequate salary and appropriate payment methods
Appropriate payment methods should be used for payments
The Occupational Health and Safety Act come into action where needed.
Employees should be aware of The Employment Relations Act
relates to:
- trade unions,
- fundamental rights of workers and employers,
- collective bargaining,
- labour disputes
- and related matters
...so as to underpin collective bargaining and strengthen social dialogue.
This helps employees to report matters concerning any types of exploitation at workplace
- age,
- caste,
- color,
- creed,
- ethnic origin,
- impairment,
- marital status,
- place of origin,
- political opinion,
- race,
- sex or sexual orientation.
Equal treatment should be given to local and migrant workers.
In the textile industry
Piece rate
[more appropriate for wage calculations.]
But unfortunately, employers use other types of wage calculations like they are paid for hours of work only for which the employers does not have to spend large amounts on payment of wages.
Migrant labour has been a great contribution for the development of our economy.
It is a must for our modern Mauritian society to give those migrant workers equal treatments and let them have a better standard of living here.
It has help to fulfill our shortage of labour in various sectors mainly textile industry.
This will help in the progress of the working culture for the future generations.
The Video
Full transcript