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Jean Jacques Rousseau
Transcript of Jean Jacques Rousseau
Rousseau was born in Geneva in 1712.
Son of Isaac Rousseau and Suzanne Bernard
Mother past nine days after Jean Jacques birth.
Rousseau was educated by his father until the age of ten.
Father fled Geneva to avoid arrest.
Rousseau was put in the care of extended family
CENTRAL TO ROUSSEAU'S WORLD VIEW
training to become a Catholic Priest
PHILOSOPHY IN REGARD TO HUMAN NATURE
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
1728-Rousseau left the city at the age of sixteen
After leaving the city Rousseau tried his hand at various occupations
In 174o he moved to Lyon to become a tutor
In 1742 Rousseau ventured to Paris
Moved to Paris in 1744
In 1745- Rousseau meets Thérèse Levasseur,
his lover and, eventually his wife.
mother of his 5 children
1749- Rousseau has an epiphany
1764- Begins writing his autobiography
1766-1767 spent time in England, a portion with Hume
1767- Returns to France
1778- Rousseau passes away
In 1749, as Rousseau was walking to Vincennes he came across a newspaper announcement for an essay competition.
The essay prompt was whether the development of the arts and sciences had improved or corrupted public morals.
Rousseau then experienced an epiphany:
HUMANKIND IS GOOD BY NATURE BUT IS CORRUPTED BY SOCIETY
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
Teachers are perceived as tutors that provide a safe environment that stimulates exploration for the student.
The goal of this type of education is to protect and aid in the development of the child's innate goodness through various stages
1. Infancy- child needs to explore. Give the child limited restraints, avoid portraying a relationship of authority over the child
2. Twelve years of age- acquisition of skills, applying concepts, often done through experience.
3. Early adulthood- Child takes an interest in other human beings, becomes very aware of what others think of them. Teacher should ensure that student fosters relationships with compassion and appreciation, not competition.
4. Adult- gain an understanding of the social world. Teacher becomes trusted adviser
PHILOSOPHY IN REGARD
TO HUMAN NATURE
It is important to note that Rousseau had an extremely pessimistic outlook on philosophy and society.
Rousseau believed that human beings are innately good, but we are corrupted by society.
Rousseau believed that this corruption occurs due to
or the love of oneself (pride or vanity).
our constant need for acceptance, affirmation, and competition.
How can people be free while under the authority of the state?
States are legitimate if they follow the "general will" of the members
General will: that which all the members of society (citizens) want and will follow.
law must apply to all citizens
laws must come from all citizens
To do this must the citizens be relatively similar to one another?
Rousseau offers that the establishment of this state is unlikely.
Great goal though!
Rousseau wore many hats
Rousseau's philosophies are widely viewed as pessimistic: I think that he is actually just being realistic
World View= Humans are innately good, however we are corrupted by society
Education relies upon discovery
Legend has it that the only time that Kant forgot to take his daily walk was when reading
Bertram, Christopher, "Jean Jacques Rousseau", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)<http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/rousseau/>.
"Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Rousseau, Jean-Jacques . N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2013.
Kupperman, Joel. Theories of Human Nature. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub., 2010. Print.