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Transcript of Piaget
Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage (0-2yrs)
Into the First Year
Gradually require knowledge of cause-and-effect relationships.
Goal Directed Behavior: Intentional behavior aimed at bringing about an anticipated outcome.
Object Permanance: Realization that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
For much of this period children's thinking is restricted to objects in their immediate environment.
But.... a little after 1 years old,
Symbolic thought is developed which is the ability to mentally represent and think about external objects and events.
The Origins of Intelligence in Children (1952)
The Psychology of Intelligence (1960)
The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932)
The Child’s Conception of Physical Causality (1930)
The Language and Thought of the Child (1926)
The Growth of Logical Thinking From Childhood to Adolescence (1958)
First Months of Life
Reflexes are developed that help keep them alive. (Ex: Latching)
Begin to exhibit voluntary behaviors that they repeat creating behavior based sensorimotor schemes. (Ex: putting fist in mouth and then nearby objects as well like plastic toys.)
Based on behaviors and perceptions. Children focus on what they are doing and seeing at the moment because children cannot think about things that are not immediately in front of them.
Invited to be director of research at the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute in Geneva
Began studying the emergence of intelligence and the origins of mental health
Conducted countless experiments and observed the behavior of his own three children
Returned to the University of Geneva to look more deeply into child psychology
Cognitive Development Theory
After observing many children and their behaviors, Piaget concluded that, although it might be at different times, all children went through the same four stages of cognitive development:
Born August 9th, 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland
Became a scholar at an early age
Published his first paper at age 10 and received a Ph. D. in science by the age of 22 from the University of Neuchatel
Soon became interested in the reasoning of a child
A child's vocabulary grows extremely quickly in the early part of the preoperational stage. Each word serves as a symbol representing a child's specific thought, allowing him or her to think more deeply about both past and future events.
Along with language, the beginning of symbolic thought can be seen in the child's play. Preschoolers use their imagination and play games such as "house," which Piaget believes is the child's practice of the schenarios they are already familiar with.
Part 1 of conservation
Conservation is the realization that if nothing is added or taken away, the amount of something remains the same. In the earlier part of the preoperational stage, children fail to understand the concept of conservation. When they are 4 or 5, children might correctly answer a question of conservation, but fail to provide a reason as to how they knew the answer.
Piaget described children in this stage to be egocentric, meaning they fail to consider the perspective of others. They do not realize each person has unique thoughts and are only aware of their own. Young children often tell stories that are missing critical details expecting the listener to understand even though it might not make any sense.
Children become less egocentric and begin to understand others have their own thoughts and feelings. Instead of believing their own thoughts are reality, they may ask others for their opinions about a certain subject.
Part 2 of conservation
At this stage, children understand some aspects of conservation. They may easily be able to explain that even though the glasses are different sizes, they still have the same amount of liquid, but struggle with conservation of weight.
Although children begin to think more logically in the concrete operations stage, their cognitive development is not yet complete. Children at this age may still have problems understanding and reasoning through hypothetical situations.
Separation and control of variables
Children are able understand and conduct scientific experiments. They can think more deeply and form hypotheses before testing them. Also, they are able to understand the idea of separating and controlling the variables of the experiment.
Adolescents are able to look beyond just the literal meaning of things. They can understand many mathematical concepts such as a negative number or infinity and decimals, fractions, percentages, or ratios.
Because of the new ability to think hypothetically, adolescents are able to think of ways in which the world can be better than it is now politically, ethically, and many other ways.
Children can now think and talk about things beyond their immediate experience, but they still don't reason in logical ways.
Preoperational Stage (2-7yrs)
The ability to understand more abstract ideas appears in this stage. Problem-solving skills are also improved. Now they fully start to undestand the idea of conservation.
Formal Operations Stage (11-16yrs)
Logical thinking begins to appear, but it is limited to concrete things. Children in the stage might have a hard time thinking about abstract ideas.
Concrete Operations Stage (7-11yrs)
TRUE OR FALSE
1.) Piaget was born in Norway.
2.) Object permanence begins in the sensorimotor stage.
3.) Logical reasoning emerges at age six.
4.) Egocentrism is present in the formal operations stage.
5.) Piaget's research was not completely accepted throughout history and the scientific community.