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Chapter Eight: Editing
Transcript of Chapter Eight: Editing
Also called the Axis of Action, is a horizontal line between the main characters being photographed.
What is Editing?
Editing; the basic creative force of cinema, is the process by which the editor combines and coordinates individual shots into a cinematic whole.
Iris Shot (keyhole)
By: Ben Cheney
The Film Editor
The person primarily responsible for such decisions is the film editor. the bulk of their work is done after the director has shot all of the movies footage.
P.O.V Editing helps show continuity by shooting point A, and then cutting to whatever they're gazing or looking at.
The Jump Cut presents an instantaneous advance in the action, a sudden and perhaps illogical ellipsis between two shots caused by discontinuity.
makes the Movie
Editing consists of two parts, the first begins when the editor takes the footage that was shot by the cinematographer and the director and then selects, arranges, and assembles these into the movies final visual form (includes rhythm, speed, tempo, or pace). The second part includes the mixing of all the sound tracks into the master sound track that matches the visual images.
The method of joining two shots is called
Splicing because, prior to digital software people had to actual cut or splice the film roll before gluing the final all together.
The basic building block of film editing is the
Each shot has two explicit values, the first is determined by what what is within the shot itself. the second value is determined by how that shot relates to others around it. the first is largely the responsibility of the director, while the second falls to the product of editing.
The power of editing
productions today usual consist 2,000 to 3,000 shots.
Responsibilities of the editor:
Spatial relationships between shots
Temporal relationships between shots
the overall rhythm of the film
Spatial relationship between shots can be one
of the most powerful effects of film editing. It creates a sense of space in the mind of the viewer with multiple shots showing the proximity of space but from different angles. This allows the viewer to create a map in their head of the action and the objects around the scene.
Temporal Relationships between shots;
for a good example to describe this type of shot we should look at Christopher Nolan's
We see how the shots are presented in a fragmented, reshuffled order. The plot is shown in a more or less chronological manner, editing however is used to manipulate the presentation of plot time onscreen.
The Flashback; the interruption of chronological plot time to show an event that has already occurred in the story. (Flash Forward)
Ellipsis; an omission between one thing and another. In film this is used to skip over one scene that does not need to be shown but it is understood by the crowd that it occurred.
Rhythm; the duration of the shot. sometimes it can be used slowly to allow us to absorb everything on screen, while others will flash by so fast your not allowed to permit thought.
Content Curve; the point where
the audience has absorbed all they
need to know.
Continuity Editing is where
the shots flows seamlessly and so smooth that we are not distracted by the cuts.
Discontinuity Editing; when the film makers choose to have each shot displayed for a different, unequal amount of time.
What happens on the screen makes as much narrative sense as possible.
Screen direction is consistent from shot to shot
Graphic, Spatial, and temporal relations are maintained from shot to shot.
Relies on 3 things:
the action must move along a hypothetical line that keeps it in sight of the camera.
everything is shot on that side of the line.
Everyone else stays behind that line.