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Improving Performance HSC

Improving Performance HSC
by

Fiona Saunders

on 24 July 2015

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Transcript of Improving Performance HSC

Option 2 - Improving Performance
How do athletes train for improved performance?
What are the planning considerations for improving performance?
Initial planning considerations
What ethical issues are related to improving performance?
Use of drugs
For athletes to train for improved performance, they need to train for:
strength
aerobic capacity
anaerobic capacity (power and speed)
flexibility
skill development
Strength Training
The three types of strength training are resistance, weight and isometric training. All three rely on .............................. ....................... principles.
Overload techniques include:
Explain the principle of progressive overload in your own words.
Pyramiding
With each set performed the resistance is increased and the number of repetitions decreased. This aims to fatigue the muscle group.
Reverse pyramiding
The athlete starts with a heavy resistance and does a few reps. With each set the weight is decreased and the number of reps increased.
Blitzing
Overload techinques...
This involves working a muscle group with a variety of different exercises until fatigue occurs.
Supersets
This involves completing two sets of different exercises with no rest between sets. The same muscle can be worked or agonist and antagonist groups can be trained.
Negative repetitions
This involves working with a spotter/partner and performing an exercise to fatigue. Once this happens, the spotter assists with the lift and ensures controlled lowering of the weight.
Holding dumbbells by sides, with palms facing body, raise both arms laterally to ceiling keeping arms straight. Bring arms back down till parallel with floor and hold for one count then return arms to side. Repeat.
Muscle group - deltoids
Strength training exercises
Lateral shoulder raise
Shoulder shrug
The barbell is held at waist height and held with an overhand grip. Keeping arms straight, shoulders are raised towards ears and returned to starting position. The movement should appear to be a 'rolling' one.
Muscle group - trapezius.
Dumbbell Curl
On an incline bench, hang arms by sides holding dumbbells with palms in. Slowly curl the weight up towards shoulder by turning wrist outward so that thumbs point away from body. Alternate arms.
Muscle group - bicep
Lat pull down
With an overhand grip, the bar is held wider than the shoulders, overhead. The bar is then pulled down until it touches the back of the neck. It is released in a controlled manner.
Muscle group - latissimus dorsi
Barbell bench press
The athlete lies on their back on a bench with feet flat to floor. The bar is gripped slightly wider than shoulders. The bar is lowered to the chest and then pressed back to starting position. A spotter should be used.
Muscle group - pectorals
Leg curl
Laying on front, with heels under pads provided, the knee is flexed until pads touch gluteals and is then lowered.
Muscle group - hamstrings
Leg extension
Sitting on the leg extension machine with ankles behind pads, knees are straightened and returned to starting position.
Muscle group - quadriceps
Calf raise
With feet hip width apart, athlete raises on to toes and returns to start position.
Muscle group - gastrocnemius and soleus
Upright row
Using an overhand grip, with hands together in the middle of the bar, raise the bar to under the chin and lower until arms are straight.
Muscle groups -

Dumbbells are a type of free weight used in weight training. They can be used individually or in pairs, with one in each hand.
Types include: adjustable, fixed-weight and selectorised.
Examples include: barbells, kettlebells, sandbags, weight plates.
Advantages: Target individual muscles, issues with 'weaker side' and are asymmetrical.
Elements to be considered when designing a training session
Planning to avoid overtraining
"Fail to plan is to plan to fail"
What do you understand this phrase to mean?
Initial Planning Considerations
Performance and fitness needs
Schedule of events and competitions
Climate and season
Performance and fitness needs
Fitness issues:
Evaluation of fitness levels of athletes
Identification of injury issues
Fitness testing
Examine the gap between current fitness levels and fitness goals
Performance Issues:
Review previous year's performance
Skills testing
Evaluate group dynamics and leadership
Analysis of requirements of sport and how athletes will manage these
SWOT analysis
Performance and fitness needs
Schedule of events/competitions
Competition structure, special events and off season competition opportunities. At the elite level, there is often no real defined off-season as athletes travel overseas to compete at other international competitions
Often, the length of the competition season is pre-determined and so the pre and post season phases are based on this.
Demands of the sport
Climate and season
Performing in different climatic conditions will require different strategies.
Two aspects to consider are the conditions over a period of time (will they be constant in the competition season?) and will the training conditions mimic those of the competition?
Conditions to be considered might be humidity, temperature and the predominant energy system being used.
Planning a training year (periodisation)
Phases of competition
Subphases - macrocycles and microcycles
Sport specific subphases
Peaking and tapering
You have 30-40 minutes to research and discuss what periodisation is, what the three phases and subphases are and mean, how sport specific subphases can be built into the training year and why peaking and tapering are important considerations when planning a training year.
You will now answer part 3 of your assessment task without looking at your notes.
Move in to small groups and read each other's responses and edit yours to ensure you have included all the required information and discuss whether or not you have addressed the question.
Have you linked your explanation to how periodisation can be used to improve performance?
Peaking and tapering
Peaking is when an athlete aims to be at optimal performance for competition.
Tapering is when an athlete decrease training without causing a detraining effect to allow the body and mind to rest and regenerate. This is may include:
a period of 7-21 days depending on how often the athlete trains
reducing the volume of training by 40-60% (decreasing duration and workload)
maintaining the intensity of training sessions
reducing the frequency of training by 0-20%
Tapering - if an athlete trains:
for less than 5 hours a week, 1-2 days prior to competition is sufficient,
6-10 hours, a 7 day taper may be sufficient,
> 10 hours, 14-21 days may enhance performance,
a successful taper may also include a high carbohydrate diet.
Watch the following video and take notes.
Use of technology
The dangers of performance enhancing drugs
Physical effects
cancer
high blood pressure
depression
fluid retention
testicular atrophy
breast enlargement
baldness
acne
bone growth
Financial costs
bans from competition limiting access to income
loss of sponsorship
loss of future employment opportunities
Loss of reputation
loss of pride
relationship breakdowns
loss of standing in the community
examples of athletes who have encountered this are Lance Armstrong and Marion Jones
Emotional costs
mood swings
aggression
violence
irritability
confusion
abnormal sexual desire
Drugs used to increase strength:
Human Growth Hormone
Anabolic steroids
Side effects of HGH
increased risk of diabetes
increased risk of colon and prostate cancer
joint swelling and pain
enlarged internal organs eg. heart, kidneys, liver
carpel tunnel syndrome
overgrowth of hands, feet and face
heart problems
Elements to be considered when designing a training session
Planning training sessions allows coaches to be effective, develop and maintain positive learning environments and allows them to be relaxed and confident.
The goals of the session will influence the sequencing of the session and the actual components of the session.
Identify the elements of a training session
health and safety considerations
an overview of the session (goal-specific)
warm up
skill instruction and practice
conditioning
cool down
evaluation
Health and safety consideratons
A risk management plan should be developed to identify potential dangers
Warm up and cool down: prepares the athletes mentally and physically for the session and minimises the chance of injury. Cool down dissipates ............. ......... and returns muscle length following continual contractions.
Climatic conditions: avoid extreme temperatures and electrical storms
Health and safety considerations
Apparel: appropriate clothing improves performance and can reduce the incidence of injury
Equipment: regular or routine checking of equipment should be carried out. Maintenance of equipment is essential.
Protective equipment: mandate the supply and use of specific protective equipment. Examples?
Hydration: access to water and reminders to hydrate regularly
Health and safety considerations
Playing surface: inspect grounds, courts, tracks etc to protect against uneven surfaces, foreign bodies or any other dangerous materials
First aid: coaches should be trained in first aid, know athletes specific health issues, have fully stocked first aid kits and have access to phone to call for assistance
Rest and recovery: plan for sufficient time for rest and recovery and be vigilant for signs of overtraining
Sick or injured athletes: communicate with athletes and carers. Liaise with medical practitioners if necessary.
Providing an overview of the session
Give two or three objectives of the session
Explain why this session has been planned
This gives focus to the session and ensures everyone is clear on what is expected of them
Skill instruction and practice
This should include drills to improve or maintain specific skills
Executing skills when fatigued to mimic game situations
Small sided games with modified rules
Full practice games
Skill instruction and practice
Instructions and explanation should be clear, concise and relevent to athletes
Feedback should be given
Can be coach centred or athlete centred
Conditioning
Speed, power and acceleration components should be early in the session. Why?
Circuit, intervals, flexibility activities should come towards the end of the session.
Conditioning activities should target specific energy systems and should be scheduled throughout the season.
Planning a training session
Can you:
justify the reasons drugs are considered to be unethical and carry a range of risks for the athlete?
agrue issues related to drug testing such as:
- at what level of competition should drug testing be introduced?
- which drugs should be tested for?
- what are the pros and cons of drug testing?
- what should be the consequences of drug use?
Use of technology
training innovations
equipment advances
Limitations of drug testing
drug testing is expensive
drug tests emerge after the drug has been developed and there is a period of time when it cannot be detected
testing is done either too regularly or too irregularly to be effective
drugs cheats move on to new drugs once a test has been developed
amateur sports are usually not tested
not all athletes can be tested and it is time consuming
http://bcove.me/42fo3uwu
Use of technology
Pages 439- 444 of Peak Performance:
- read through information and highlight important facts
- highlight and rewrite in your own words the ways in which technological advances have become associated with both positive and negative developments in sport
- summarise training innovation. Be able to outline advances in training methods/protocols and how they equate to improved performance
Use of technology
equipment advances - read through the examples of advances in performance enhancing technologies and pick three that you could use. Make sure you are able to say how they have contributed to improved performance.
In a report format, rewrite what you have learned.
TRAINING TYPE: STRENGTH
Brief description:
Strength training is a type of physical exercise or a method of improving muscular strength through the use of resistance to cause muscular contractions
Gradually increasing the muscle's ability to resist force using free weights, machines or body weight.
Performance goals:
The development of:
- muscular strength and endurance
- power
To gain muscle definition and increase the size of skeletal muscle
To increase bone density and strength
To maintain a healthy weight or lose weight
Training adaptations
Increased muscle fibre size (hypertrophy) and number
Improved muscular strength and tone
Increased ligament and tendon strength -> increased bulk
Increased bone density
Body composition - increased muscle:fat ratio and weight management. Improved metabolism at rest.
Greater stamina and increased VO2 max
Prevention/control of chronic conditions (diabetes, HD, arthritis, depression and obesity
Improved mobility, balance, posture, sense of well-being and self-esteem
Measurement of adaptations
1 RM test
Take body measurements - circumference of muscle group
Body composition - % body fat
Keep records of training sessions - # reps, sets, weight lifted
Shorter rest periods indicate an increased level of endurance
Faster, more explosive power
Better control
Improved range of movement
Safe training procedures
Warm up and cool down
Allow time for muscle to recover, repair and grow
Focus on form - correct body alignment and form
Stay in control by using appropriate speed of movement
Use breath - exhale against resistance and inhale as weight is released
Slowly increase weight/resistance
Use a spotter/assistant if needed
Ensure equipment is safe and in good working order
Potentially harmful prodecures
Using poor form or technique - eg deep squats, double leg raises, behind the neck press, straight leg sit-ups
Training - when sick
- causing pain
- sessions too long
Locking joints
Inadequate hydration
Designing a strength training program
http://www.ausport.gov.au/sportscoachmag/sports_sciences/designing_a_strength_and_conditioning_program
Planning a training year (periodisation)
Availability of resources
Planning should cater for adverse weather conditions. Examples?
Changes in training times, lengths, structures and venues may need to be adjusted.
'Classroom' sessions may be used to develop tactics/strategies
http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/3790603.htm
Ergogenic aids
What is an ergogenic aid?
An ergogenic aid is any procedure, process or substance that enhances a performance. They are able to delay the onset of fatigue and perception of fatigue, act directly on muscle fibres, supply fuel for muscular contraction, act on the heart and circulatory system, affect respiration, mask pain and hasten recovery.
The five classes of ergogenic aids are:
mechanical aids (equipment, skill development and biomechanics)
pharmacological aids (drugs)
nutritional aids (dietary supplementation)
psychological aids (mental rehearsal, goal-setting, hypnosis)
physiological aids (blood-doping, training, recovery procedures and oxygen uptake)
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