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Literacy in Language learning
Transcript of Literacy in Language learning
ELL or EL: English language learner (student of ESOL)
Plural: ELLs or ELs
ESOL: English as a Second Language (subject)
EFL: English as a Foreign Language (subject)
FL: Foreign Language (subject)
TESOL: Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (field)
What to Look for in Students
Quick gUIDE TO
Things Parents Can Do
Activities for the Classroom
What Teachers Should be Doing
This Prezi is for future or current teachers looking for ways to imporve their literacy teaching to their students, and is mostly geared towards English language learners.
Bello, Tom. "Improving ESL Learners' Writing Skills" Washington, DC. Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education, and Washington, DC. National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education. ERIC Digest. n.p.: 1997. ERIC. Web. 14 May 2014.
Brady, Evangeline Christina; Kritsonis, William Allan. "Targeting Reading Fluency for ESL Students: A Research Based and Practical Application." Online Submission, Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, Spr 2008. 2008 6 pp. (ED500036)
Dreher, Mariam Jean; Gray, Jennifer Letcher. "Compare, Contrast, Comprehend: Using Compare-Contrast Text Structures with ELLs in K-3 Classrooms" Reading Teacher, v63 n2 p132-141 Oct 2009. (EJ860802)
Gibson, Katherine "Teachers' Perceptions of Strategy Based Reading Instruction for Reading Comprehension" D. 2009 42 pp. (ED505543)
Hudelson, Sarah. "Children's Writing In ESL" Washington, DC. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. ERIC Digest. n.p.: 1988. ERIC. Web. 14 May 2014.
Kim, YouJin. "The Role of Task-Induced Involvement and Learner Proficiency in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition." Language Learning, v58 n2 p285-325 Jun 2008. (EJ790791)
McLeod, Susan H., et al. WAC For The New Millennium: Strategies For Continuing Writing-Across-The-Curriculum Programs. n.p.: 2001. ERIC. Web. 14 May 2014.
Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy. "Beyond Consensus--Beyond Balance: Toward a Comprehensive Literacy" Reading and Writing Quarterly, v20 n1 p91-102 Jan-Mar 2004. (EJ695467) ERIC
Read, Sylvia; Reutzel, D. Ray; Fawson, Parker C.. "Do You Want to Know What I Learned? Using Informational Trade Books as Models to Teach Text Structure" Early Childhood Education Journal, v36 n3 p213-219 Dec 2008. (EJ820191)
Wilson, G. Pat; Martens, Prisca; Arya, Poonam. "Readers, Instruction and the NRP" Phi Delta Kappan, v86 n3 p242 Nov 2004. (EJ707601)
Tompkins, Gail E (2012) Literacy for the Twenty-first Century, Prentice Hall.
Cloud, Nancy, Genesee, Fred & Hamayan, Else (2009). Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
This is for a second grade classroom of ELL’s. The children are mostly literate in their native language and are just starting to learn literacy in English.
Students will be able to:
identify new vocabulary,
accurately use as well as pronounce the vocabulary learned in this lesson
Students will be able to:
identify a variety of information within the story: characters, setting, plot
gain knowledge of new vocabulary related to the book
appropriately sequence events given from the story
draw pictures related to the story, representing the different elements of the story
Text: "Boober’s Colorful Soup” by Joanne Barkan
Other: Sequencing graphic organizer, crayons, markers, and colored pencils, safety scissors, tape/glue
1. To begin, the teacher will introduce the book, "Boober’s Colorful Soup". Students will look at the cover and begin to name things they might find in soup. A list will be put up on the board, and any questions the students have at that point will be answered.
2. The teacher will then introduce new vocabulary by handing out a vocabulary list to the students. Students will then be asked to repeat the words after the teacher pronounces the words first.
3. Each student will have their own copy of the book and will be expected to follow along while the teacher reads aloud. In doing this, the children are able to stimulate the visual, auditory and oral aspects of language learning.
4. After the reading, students will be split up into pairs and given a sequencing graphic organizer as well as the supplies needed to complete the graphic organizer. Students will be asked to work together to color the vegetables in the appropriate color before sequencing them on the graphic organizer in the order that they appear.
5. Afterwards, students will be asked to share their work with two other pairs. Students will review their graphic organizers in their groups in order to summarize the book. The teacher will walk around the room, visiting each group and giving assistance where needed.
What Teachers Should be Doing
Activities for the Classroom
What to Look for in Students
Things Parents Can Do
Use new vocabulary words and have students put them on the board. This can be anything from sight-words to parts of speech to synonyms found for specific words.
Uses in Reading:
Helps in comprehending plot
Helps in organizing order
Can improve vocabulary
Helps identify word patterns
Uses in Writing:
Helps with Structure
Helps with Writing Organization
As Tompkins mentions, allowing graphic organizers in the classroom can help students to be able to “emphasize the big ideas,” (Tompkins 315) as a means of understanding a story. This is useful because it can help break down stories in new and different ways that a student may not originally pick up on, allowing them to be able to apply their own knowledge to what is being discussed in the book, which Tompkins also touches on. By introducing the idea of importance of graphic organizers, students are able to lower stress levels, specifically ELL’s, in an attempt to be able to become more clear about what they are trying to say. With the amount of graphic organizers out there, there’s no limit to what they can be used for. By allowing this, we’re introducing another aspect of literacy into the classroom in ways that still allow creative outlets for students while increasing comprehension.
Adult class of ELL’s from all over attempting to pass their citizenship test. They are currently at about a fifth grade reading level. ELLs lack vocabulary and background knowledge necessary to pass the test. All need improved vocabulary as well as pronunciation of American English, especially when comparing themselves to that of a native American English speaker. All speak native language at home. All are literate in their home languages. All have immigrated within the last five years.
Students will be able to:
• recognize and identify new vocabulary; name historical facts and figures
• correctly pronounce new vocabulary
• correctly produce new vocabulary when relevant
• accurately produce two sentences in regards to the Declaration of Independence; using new vocabulary
• improve reading fluency and comprehension
Students will be able to:
• gain cultural knowledge of the Declaration of Independence
• identify the different reasons for the creation of the Declaration
• work together to complete given tasks
Text: The Declaration of Independence, by Dennis Brindell Fradin
1. Teacher introduces book and does brief picture walk to create interest. Teacher poses questions to build prediction skills, i.e.; What is happening in this picture? What do you think will happen next? Students are encouraged to point to and name any items that they recognize, or to ask questions about things they do not recognize within the pictures. Teacher puts on the board any new vocabulary brought up during the picture walk.
2. Teacher introduces key vocabulary from the book and adds whatever new vocabulary was gained in the picture-walk exercise. These key words include those that are bolded within the text as well as words like “sieze” which can have multiple meanings.
3. Teacher briefly goes over the pronunciation of each word. Teacher has students repeat the words. Teacher then has the class attempting the spelling for each word. Teacher then puts words on the board, as well as hands each student their own list. Allows time for students to correctly copy the new words and definitions learned from the picture walk.
4. Teacher reads aloud from the book, with students following along in their own texts. Teacher exemplifies good read habits and qualities. As desired, teacher points out a picture and asks if any student would like to change the prediction they had previously made during the picture-walk.
5. Mini-lesson: After the reading, students break up into small groups. From here, each group is expected to write a summary of the chapter read in class using at least 4 vocabulary words. Each group is expected to have at least one sentence per group member. Teacher circulates, offering help as needed.
6. Group members now take turns in reading one of the sentences from the summary in their small group. Other members are asked to listen to the reader and express any concerns or hints in which the reader may improve their pronunciation or overall delivery.
7. Groups now share their summaries with the class, each reading the sentence they have practiced with their individual groups. Other students are encouraged to ask questions in regards to content, structure, or pronunciation.
8. Homework/extension: Students take home and read the next chapter of the book. Students are expected to write down any additional words in this chapter that they do not know.
This allows children to be able to be able to complete their thoughts at their own speed without being interrupted. It may be a hard thing to develop into a beginning ELL program, as sometimes students will struggle with going back and forth between their native and second language, but as children develop a stronger speaking ability, this program could be extremely beneficial.
A quickwrite is when the class is given a specific amount of time to be able to write about whatever they want. The idea is to get students to practice their writing. Collecting it is optional, but often a more practical approach.
Learn more about this and other classroom ideas in this video!
Learn more about it!
Accurately keep tabs on where your students are
Visible transition of student from modeled learning to independent learning
Opportunities to put words in context by using a present with “from” and “for” on it (Tompkins 193).
The importance of classroom community should be a given in any classroom. There are many different ways to do this, many ideas can be found in
Literacy for the 21st Century
. Some ideas include
opportunities for authentic reading for real audiences and risk taking.
Developing background knowledge is eminent to understanding the content of a concept. This has mostly to do with culture and personal experience. For example, if the teacher picks a book on a topic such as moving to a new place, there will be many connections an ELL can make. However, if they talk about going fishing and all of the equipment that comes with it, then there is no reason to expect that the student would be able to make connections to that. Background knowledge is an important thing to know before going into the new topic, but it is also important to be able to expand a student’s background knowledge. Experience is the biggest factor and by allowing students to share their own experiences in the classroom, it not only helps them to validate their lives, but also allows other students to gain a new understanding and perspective in something they might not have experienced on their own. Tompkins mentions, "you should always start with an activity that is meaningful…and work on the small parts of reading…once the students are meaningfully engaged” (50).
In anything a person does, it’s important to have a balanced approach. In a teaching environment it’s important to allow variety, as Thompkins suggests, so that the students remain interested in the topic. Students are then able to stray from the textbook/worksheet protocol for more “real world” situational practice.
Remember that reading and writing instruction should be connected. You cannot isolate these topics and expect students to learn the concepts. Without balance, it is hard to ensure that the students will benefit to their full potential. A balanced approach is necessary no matter what section of literacy you are attempting to teach, whether it be phonics, comprehension, vocabulary, reading, or anything else that might come along.
Work on perfecting the native language at home!
Understanding the home language skills allows you to properly assess what new information they will be able to take in. Oral proficiency is vital for communication as it deciphers their ability to speak and be understood.
The easiest way to make something have meaning is to be able to make connections, whether it be from life or from literature as Tompkins expresses. Every person connects differently with anything they do, including reading.
Katherine D. focuses on allowing opportunities for the development that comes from reading. One example given was that of achieving higher-thinking skills. by making connections through background knowledge.–
Things to Notice in this Video:
The students use the word “tire” instead of “wheels” because that was a word they could produce on their own.
Creation of a "simple story" to allow for better understanding
Allowing a creative outlet in having the students draw the pictures
Able to share with others
Done in partners so no one is overwhelmed
Since the LEA process is student generated, it allows for a multitude of groups varying in size, age, and content. Language Experience Approach could be used in any setting for any subject which is what makes it so appealing. It can be used in a multitude of ways, but in a form in which the students are already familiar.
Use Diaries/Journals in the classroom (Hudelson)
Gives opportunity to correct little mistakes and a realistic look at what the students might need to revisit in their language development.
Having things checked by peers creates a better environment
Good way for the students to, “feel that their writing has value,” while still developing, “the ability to communicate effectively […] with different audiences” (Bello 5).
Student choosing the topic
Gives them the power and the freedom to explore
An action thermometer is a fun and interactive way to get students invested in what you're teaching. This also gives an opportunity for children to move around so there's less time for zoning out!
Grab the book you and your students will be reading and walk through the pictures on the pages. Allow children the opportunity to comment on what they think is going to happen!
Mind Mapping can help facilitate writing in a student and allows a creative outlet full of color and design. Watch this video for more ideas!
Uses “mentor text” - allows the students to be able to understand what is expected
Allows ELLs to focus on content instead of structure when writing, less anxiety
Teacher models appropriate pacing and pauses for reading
Introduces new vocabulary at the beginning
Uses scaffolding questions
Students read along with the teacher in order to keep them focused
Students should feel comfortable enough in their own classroom to be able to explore, guess, and take risks (Thompkins 16). S
tudents shouldn't feel frustrated or defeated. By keeping students engaged, they’re able to open their minds and become excited and invested in what they’re learning.
One of the best ways to be a good teacher is to have your students feel supported, and to see someone successfully pull through a struggle that you’re having is a great way to keep students motivated. According to Thompkins, there are several different ways in which a teacher understands how students learn. Behaviorism can be described as being more teacher-centered and focuses on observed changes in behavior. Constructivism is another method of learning which is considered to be more student-oriented and allows opportunities for students to collaborate and engage in their learning. This allows opportunities for background knowledge and allows students to use what they know. With these as well as sociolinguistics and cognitive/information processing, it’s important that teachers try to find a balance in these methods, as no particular theory will be as successful on its own as it would be with the others. The four cueing systems include the phonological (sound), syntactic (structural), semantic (meaning), and pragmatic (social/cultural use). These cueing systems are really important for teachers to understand because, “[t]ogether, these systems make communication possible,” (Thompkins 13).
Another approach for read-to-write exercises might include something like allowing the child to read a story aloud before having them write a summary of what they have read. This may require a higher skill level and should be used only if the students are at an appropriate level.
Here's an Example!
More insight for teachers
speaking at home
reading at home
Encourage reading! This can happen in either language. Sometimes the child can read to the parent, and sometimes the parent can read to the child. Get children excited about reading!
A Balanced Approach
If students are not comfortable enough to practice at home, their practices and instruction will be completely dependent on the classroom environment and setting. That is why it’s important to allow children to feel welcome and accepted in the classroom. If they do not trust the environment, they will not be willing to make mistakes, and they will therefore not be able to learn and improve their skills.
The literacy of their parents as well as their environment will give a better background knowledge on the child’s ability to practice outside of the classroom. Without outside practice, students may begin to fall behind.
Allington, Richard, and Rachel Gabriel. "Every Child, Every Day." Educational Leadership:Reading: The Core Skill:Every Child, Every Day. ASCD, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar12/vol69/num06/Every-Child,-Every-Day.aspx>.
"Teaching Vocabulary." Reading Rockets. WETA Public Television, 1 Jan. 2001. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.readingrockets.org/article/9943>.
"Viewpoints: Teaching children to read." BBC News. British Broadcasting Company, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 14 May 2014. <http://www.bbc.com/news/education-19812961>.
Walker, Sherrelle. "Inspiring Students to Dream, Learn and Grow." . Scientific Learning Cooperation, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 14 May 2012. <http://www.scilearn.com/blog/engaged-student-brain-based-learning.php>.