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Copy of Copy of Mu 103. Music appreciation
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Mu 103. Music appreciation
Aj. Christin Grothaus
The ancient Greek Muses:
The nine goddesses of art and science
Derived from mousa, the Greek word for muse.
In ancient Greece, the word mousike was used to mean
any of the arts or sciences governed by the Muses.
Later, in Rome, music embraced poetry as well as
The dominance of the catholic church:
Control over feudal lords in Europe
Scribes, musicians and artists
Western music was almost the sole property of the catholic church.
Gregorian Chant (monophonic)
Single vocal melody without accompanying harmony or a single melody on an instrument
Later more voices but still one note at a time
Pope Gregory I, sixth century, established uniform usage in Western catholic church. Assumption
Free of tempo, pure floating melody
Dictated by Latin liturgical texts
Simultaneous notes. Added melodic lines contrary and crossing
Polyphony (11th -13th century)
Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris
Organum: 2 melodic lines at parallel intervals
Leonin and Perotin
Polyphony (14th century)
Guillaume de Machaut
Renaissance: Golden Age of Polyphony: Josquin des Prez: Flemish school style.
Popular music, not bound to church
12th, 13th century musicians
French trouveres a. troubadours (trobaire- invent)
Rhythmically lively melodies
Middle Ages 500-1400
Free spirit. Rebirth of learning, arts, science
Invention of the printing press.
Invention of the compass
Copernicus, position of earth in solar system
The church lost grip
Secular vocal music composition
First many voices, in choir form, later also single voice with instruments
The beginning of the opera
Regarded as the greatest composers of all time
Organ and violin when he was young also excellent singer
Lueneburg school choir
Taking up a post as organist and concert master at the court of the Duke of Weimar
Great contribution to the Polyphonic style
Achieved remarkable heights in the art of fugue, choral polyphony and organ music, instrumental music and dance forms
The old wig
Lost his eyesight
His end of life marked the end of the Baroque age in music
Played the violin, harpsichord, oboe and organ, by age of 11
Hamburg, composes Italian operas
Kapellmeister (band leader) in Hannover at the court for the elector Georg of Hannover
Produced an opera in London, later for the queen
Handel never returned to Hannover, remained in England
Embarrassment when queen got succeeded by King George I the very Georg of Hannover
Composed over forty operas between 1712 and 1741
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Antonio Vivaldi (1678 - 1741)
George Frideric Haendel (1685-1759)
Italy experimented with a new method of composing dramatic vocal music, after the ancient Greek theater
Music should prove more direct and communicative to the audience as the complex polyphony of the Renaissance
Single melodic line against an accompaniment
Arrangement for the violin made for Bach's Orchestral Suite No. 3
Received nickname when the German violinist August Wilhelmj made a violin and piano arrangement of the second movement of the orchestral suite.
By changing the key into C major and transposing the melody down an octave, Wilhelmj was able to play the piece on only one string of his violin, the G string.
Johann Pachelbel, Canon in D
The original was written for three violins with a bass accompaniment and a gigue.
Bass continiuo: cello, organ, theorbo.
Set of the first four violin concertos, each resembling one season. Composed in 1723
Vivaldi's best-known work, and among the most popular pieces of Baroque music.
The concertos were first published in 1725
Composed in London 1741
Haendels best known work
Aj Christin Grothaus
Italian composer and violinist
Enormous number of concerts
The red priest
Most famous for concertos for one or more solo violins and string orchestra
Ever-popular string concerto The four seasons, compromised of four concertos, each depicting aspects of the seasons of the year.
Foundation for the development of the concerto into the classical period.
1730s popularity began to abate
Went to Vienna to reclaim his fame....but did not
Middle Ages and Renaissance focus on voices
During Baroque period. Expansion of size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance
Lute, harpsichord, violin, guitar, lute
Example in the Middle Ages: Gregorian Chant
Dance music: Terpiscore of Michael Preatorius and Tielman
La Spagna: Buoyant rhythms, sound of Renaissance dance
Renaissance dance music
The English Madrigalists
Emancipation of instrumental performance
Typical for Baroque period
A melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration
By the 1730s public interest in opera faded considerably
Turned successfully to the composition of oratorio: dramatic, non-staged works for concert hall, usually with a great deal of choral music, and most often with a biblical subject.
His genius is nowhere more evident than in his most famous oratorio, Messiah.
Made a deep and lasting impression on English music for the next century.
1751 Haendel began having trouble with his eyes.
Three operations at the hands of the same surgeon who had unsuccessfully operated on Johann Sebastian Bach. Results were the same: Complete blindness
Arcangelo Corelli pioneered concerto grosso
Element of contrast of two independent groups of instruments
Larger group, usually body of strings with harpsichord continuo
Smaller group, two of four solo instruments
Composers Johann Sebastian Bach and Antonio Vivaldi transformed this genre into the solo concerto
The solo instruments are of equal importance as the string orchestra.
Four seasons, Antonio Vivaldi
Air on a G-string
Composer of one of the oldest secular music theater pieces known in the West: Le Jeu de Robin et Marion
Motet: piece in which two or more different verses are fit together simultaneously, without regard to what we now consider conventional harmonies.
Example: De ma dame vient!
Adam de la Halle:
Watch "Bach's Work and Life" and note down keywords. Afterwards, collect your keywords among group members and write a summary of the movie. Hand in as group work.
Francois Couperin (1668-1733)
Jean Philip Rameau (1683-1764)
• What made Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart an outstanding figure in music history? Which challenges did he face throughout his life?
•What made Ludwig van Beethoven an outstanding figure in music history? Which challenges did he face throughout his life?
What is the difference between sacred music and secular music?
Which form of music played a greater role in the Middle Ages and why?
What is the difference between polyphonic and monophonic music and in which context did it appear during the Middle Ages and Renaissance?
(see handout page 3-7)
Individual work (30 min)
Note down the answers the following questions
Medieval music is European music written during the Middle Ages.
This era begins with the fall of the Roman Empire and ends in approximately the early fifteenth century
Instruments used to perform medieval music still exist, though in different forms.
The flute was once made of wood rather than silver or other metal, and could be made as a side-blown or end-blown instrument
One of the flute's predecessors, the pan flute, was popular in medieval times, and is possibly of Hellenic origin. This instrument's pipes were made of wood, and were graduated in length to produce different pitches.
The recorder, on the other hand, has more or less retained its past form.
The gemshorn is similar to the recorder in having finger holes on its front, though it is really a member of the ocarina family.
Medieval music uses many plucked string instruments, such as lute, mandore, gittern and psaltery.
Dance music of the Renaissance
Instrumental dance music flourished
Published existing music
Example: "La Spagna"
Golden age of polyphony
Josquin des Prez: more than a dozen masses, motets and many secular pieces
Motet: highly varied choral musical compositions. Describes the movement of different voices against one another.
Music is not a fact or a thing in the world, but a meaning constituted by human beings. . . . To talk about such experience in a meaningful way demands several things. First, we have to be willing to let the composition speak to us, to let it reveal its own order and significance. . . . Second, we have to be willing to question our assumptions about the nature and role of musical materials. . . . Last, and perhaps most important, we have to be ready to admit that describing a meaningful experience is itself meaningful. (Clifton 1983, 5–6)
"The science or art of ordering tones or sounds in succession, in combination, and in temporal relationships to produce a composition having unity and continuity" (Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, online edition)
Post-modern and other theories argue that, like all art, music is defined primarily by social context. According to this view, music is what people call music, whether it is a period of silence, found sounds, or performance.
Later, in Rome, ars musica embraced poetry as well as instrument-oriented music.
An often-cited definition of music, coined by Edgard Varèse, is that it is "organized sound" (Goldman 1961, 133).
This human organizing element seems crucial to the common understanding of music. Sounds produced by non-human agents, such as waterfalls or birds, are often described as "musical", but rarely as "music".
In the European Middle Ages, musica was part of the mathematical quadrivium: arithmetics, geometry, astronomy and musica. The concept of musica was split into three major kinds by the fifth century philosopher, Boethius: musica universalis, musica humana, and musica instrumentalis. Of those, only the last—musica instrumentalis—referred to music as performed sound.
Pythagoras 500 B.C.:
The Greek modes: tone scales
Scales of whole tones and half steps
He developed what may be the first completely mathematically based scale
Notes: c, d, e, f, g, a, b, c
Music - Beginnings
Do you appreciate music?
In which ways?
What does music mean to you?
Brief history of music from middle ages to modern music
Music in education and personal development (psychology)
Music in its social context (sociology) (genres: jazz/blues, punk, hip hop, popular music)
Details - see syllabus
Music history- periods
Middle ages (500-1400)
Modern music, genres (1900 till today)
What music do you listen to?
How many of the pieces played do you recognize?
Example - Music sampled - Canon D
Examples Korean Rap
Cultural and social influence
"Music, often an art/entertainment, is a total social fact whose definitions vary according to era and culture," according to Jean Molino (1975, 37).
Music is not a fact or a thing in the world, but a meaning constituted by human beings. . . (Clifton 1983, 5–6)
Music enhances quality of life. How and why?
Music and individual development
Experiment, 2007, world famous violinist Josh Bell posed as a street musician in a Washington D.C. metro station to see how many people would stop and listen.
Played a $3.5 million handcrafted violin, had just sold out a concert in Boston where ticket prices averaged $100 each
Very few people stopped to appreciate his beautiful performance. He made a measly $32 that day.
Appreciation of classical music ?
Short life (1797-1828), bridges Romantic and Classic,
Composed operas, symphonies, sonatas, masses, piano music, 600 songs
Nature imagery, lovely melodies
Symphony Nr. 8 B in minor
Choice of beautiful poetry
Die schoene Muellerin (the fair maid of the mill)
Choose three composers of the Romantic Era
Write down how their approach to music was influenced by the characteristics of the Romantic Era
Turn in your group work
(1810 , Warsaw – 1849, Paris)
(1811, Raiding – 1886, Bayreuth)
(1810, Zwickau –1856 Endenich)
Hamburg, 1809 – Leipzig, 1847
1972, Pesaro –1868, Paris
I stand amid the roar
Of a surf-tormented shore,
And I hold within my hand
Grains of the golden sand-
How few! yet how they creep
Through my fingers to the deep,
While I weep- while I weep!
O God! can I not grasp
Them with a tighter clasp?
O God! can I not save
One from the pitiless wave?
Is all that we see or seem
But a dream within a dream
A Dream Within A Dream
Take this kiss upon the brow!
And, in parting from you now,
Thus much let me avow-
You are not wrong, who deem
That my days have been a dream;
Yet if hope has flown away
In a night, or in a day,
In a vision, or in none,
Is it therefore the less gone?
All that we see or seem
Is but a dream within a dream.
Franz Joseph Hayden
Sonata Form: (2 Tonal Parts)
A new understanding of music at the theoretical level (tonality) leading to unique expressions (i.e. original phrasings): a kind of dramatic journey through a sequence of musical keys, outward and back from the tonic.
A new vehicle for this new style called the sonata
Sonata: a piece played as opposed to a cantata, a piece sung. The term took on increasing importance in the Classical period, and by the early 19th century the word came to represent a principle of composing large scale works
Design for a table by Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier, Paris ca 1730
The Rococo Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria): architectural spaces flow together and swarm with life
Rococo also referred to as "Late Baroque" is an 18th century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful
Classical Period (1750 – 1820)
Edgar Allan Poe
(January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849)
Caspar David Friederich
Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818)
Known as the father of the symphony and String quartet.
Out of twelve children born boor but music loving family, at age of eight, choir in Vienna, after nine years voice broke, no money, no job, survived by singing, playing harpsichord and teaching.
First Symphony lead to his being engaged in 1761 as orchestra conductor to Hungarian Prince Paul Anton. Spend their 30 years composing 90 symphonies, two dozen operas, number of masses, popular next half century, almost unknown to him
When Prince Nicolas,( had succeeded prince Paul), got succeeded again Hayden was dismissed. Went to Vienna, was invited to London, last 12 London symphonies.
Known as the father of the symphony, did not invent them but swept them throughout Europe
String quartet, modernization of Rococo string, four instruments are treated with equal importance. Listen op 76. No. 3 (elegance)
Hayden suffered quick decline when French under Napoleon began their destruction of Vienna.
The two sons of Bach
German composer, organist, harpsichordist,
violist, and violinist of the Baroque period.
Enriched many established German styles
through his skill in the adaptation of
rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad,
particularly from Italy and France.
Bach's compositions include the Brandenburg
Concertos, the Mass in B minor, the The Well-Tempered Clavier, his cantatas, chorales,
and organ works.
Music revered for its intellectual depth, technical command, and artistic beauty.
Vision of equality, democracy and love
Musical climate of Western Europe
Ludwig Van Beethoven
(1770 – 1827)
Ability from his earliest childhood.
Already competent on keyboard and
violin, he composed from the age of
five and performed before European
He was the youngest of seven children, n five died in infancy
At 17, he was engaged as a
court musician in Salzburg, but grew
restless and traveled in search of a
better position, always composing
Financial problem, serious ill by 1790
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756 – 1791)
The fifth note of the major and minor scales, and the chords and keys rooted on that note.
The first note of the major and minor scales, and the chords and keys rooted on that note.
Tonic & Dominant (G major)
1 C D G
2 D E A
3 E F# B
4 F G C
5 G A D
6 A B E
7 B C# F#
Classical Period – 1700-1800 C.E.
Music Theory and instruments were mostly formed by now to our modern standards.
Major Composers – Wolfgang Amadeus, Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Joseph Haydn
Extended musical composition in Western classical music, scored almost always for orchestra.
"Symphony" does not necessarily imply a specific form, though most are composed according to the sonata principle.
Many symphonies are tonal works in four movements with the first in sonata form, which is often described by music theorists as the structure of a "classical" symphony
Although many symphonies by the acknowledged classical masters of the form, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven do not conform to this model.
Romantic Period – 1800-1900 C.E.
Musicians making a living on their own now.
Major Composers – Ludwig von Beethoven,
Franz Schubert, Peter Tchaikovsky, Johannes Brahms,
Rhythm and beat, try it yourself
Ornament style of the Rococo period
In music, ornaments are musical
flourishes that are not necessary to carry
the overall line of the melody
(or harmony), but serve instead to
decorate or "ornament" that line.
Measures, bars (Measure lines, bar lines), note (note heads), note stem, note beam, accidentals (flat, sharp) time signature, clefs
Traveling - influence on music
In London as a child, he met J. C. Bach and heard his music.
In Paris, Mannheim, and Vienna he met with other compositional influences, as well as the avant-garde capabilities of the Mannheim orchestra.
In Italy he encountered the Italian overture and opera , both of which deeply affected the evolution of his own practice.
In London and Italy, the galant style was in the ascendent: simple, light music with a mania for cadencing; symmetrical phrases; and clearly articulated partitions in the overall form of movements.
German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.
His essentially conservative musical tastes, however, set him apart from many of his more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner and Hector Berlioz.
Mendelssohn wrote symphonies, concerti, oratorios, piano music and chamber music. His best-known works include his Overture and incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream, the Italian Symphony, the Scottish Symphony, the overture The Hebrides, his mature Violin Concerto, and his String Octet.
Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces.
Until his retirement in 1829, Rossini had been the most popular opera composer in history
Baroque, classic, romantic
Most of the musical activity shifted from the church to the courts.
Composers were more open to experimentation. As a result, more composers used musical instruments in their compositions.
Instruments that produced softer and less bright sounds were preferred for indoor events. Louder and more brilliant sounding instruments were preferred for outdoor events.
Church had less power over musical activity.
Instead, the Kings, Princes and other prominent members of the courts had more influence.
The size of church choirs grew and with it more voice parts were added. This created music that was richer and fuller.
Polyphony was widely used during this period, but soon, music also became homophonic. Composers wrote pieces that shifted between polyphonic and homophonic textures.
This made the melodies more complex and elaborate.
Baroque music is structured and heavily ornamented (trills, fugues, canons, etc abound) and notes tend not to be legato. Classical music is much simpler, generally with one or two main voices or melodies and clever harmonies. Romantic music is full, lyrical, and technically very challenging.
Music in the womb
Music right and left brain
Almost nonlinear in processing information, the right brain is adept at visual imagery.
The left hemisphere, sequential and linear in its data processing, moves step by step when processing new information.
Just like any part of the body, any activity that stimulates the brain helps increase its overall functionality. While most activities like visual art, computing, and language largely work in only one hemisphere, music is one of the few activities that stimulates both sides of the brain.
Music right and left brain
The right brain, often considered the more subjective and creative hemisphere,
focuses on the melody in music.
The left hemisphere, considered the analytical part of the brain, is responsible for the understanding of musical structure and motor skills, such as playing the violin.
Rhythmic structures uniquely affect the brain extensively, such as supplementary motor areas and the basal ganglia, especially when compared to musical styles lacking a steady beat pattern.
Nonmusical activities, such as walking or martial arts, also aid the brain bilaterally when combined with a steady rhythm.
Music Listening vs. Music Performance/Activity
Music research indicates that both music listening and music performance have significant benefits.
Mozart effect: simply listening to Mozart for several minutes a day increased a child’s IQ on a permanent basis. While subsequent music research indicates Mozart Effect does not exist, there have been several studies that indicate the listening to music does have significant physiological benefits.
The act of listening to music has several noted benefits
Stress relief and emotional release
Increased creativity and abstract thinking
Positive influences on the bodies overall energy levels and heart rhythm
Ted talk classical music