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Positive Psychology

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Mikayla Conway

on 18 September 2017

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Transcript of Positive Psychology

A Journey Toward Flourishing
Well-being
Positive Emotion
Subjective
element.
Mood dependent
.
Present pleasure.
Out with the old.
In with the new.
When considering the new field of Positive Psychology, the previous scale tells only half the story.
Engagement
Previous
Psychology
Spectrum
Positive Psychology
Abnormal
Psychology
"Normal"
Psychological
State
Abnormal Psychology
The Four D's of Abnormality:
Danger
Deviance
Dysfunction
Distress
"the scientific study of optimal human functioning; the science of happiness"
- Tal Ben-Shahar

the study of "what makes people thrive and excel"
- Shawn Achor

"the study of positive emotion, of engagement, of meaning, of positive accomplishment, and of good relationships"
- Martin Seligman
Positive
Relationships
Meaning
Achievement

Well-being is a construct made up of individually measurable elements, that only in conjunction define this state of living. (Seligman, 2011).
1. "It contributes to well-being.

2. Many people pursue it for its own sake, not merely to get any of the other elements.

3. It is defined and measured independently of the other elements (exclusivity)."
Elemental Criteria (Seligman, 2011):
Subjective
element.
Time stops
State of Flow
Retrospective pleasure

Subjective
and
objective
element.
Other people
are important.
Group selection
theory
Shawn Achor: the
single greatest investment
you can make in the Happiness Advantage (his term and book title for flourishing)
Subjective
and
objective
element.
Contributing
to something larger than yourself.
Examples: Helping others, religion, work, spirituality
Subjective
and
objective
element.
Success is desirable in and of itself
Example: the quest for wealth
P

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Flourishing in Europe

Gratitude
Responding
Responding is a key component in positive relationships.
Losada Ratio
The Well-Being Table of Elements
Flourishing

Huppert and So (2013) Criteria for Flourishing:

Must have all:
1. Positive emotions
2. Engagement/interest
3. Meaning/purpose
Three of the following:
1. Self-esteem
2. Optimism
3. Resilience
4. Vitality
5. Self-determination
6. Positive Relationships
Gratitude Letter
Signature Strengths
Knowing what your strengths are allows you to utilize them and increase your own happiness.
Hallmarks of a Signature Strength:

A sense of ownership and authenticity ("This is the real me")
A feeling of excitement while displaying it, particularly at first
A rapid learning curve as the strength is first practiced
A sense of yearning to find new ways to use it
A feeling of inveitability in using the strength ("Try to stop me")
Invigoration rather than exhaustion while using the strength
The creation adn pursuit of personal projects that revolve around it
Joy, zest, enthusiasm, even ecstasy while using it
Active
Passive
Constructive
Destructive
Because Positive Psychology provides a deeper understanding of mental health, this new field deserves to attain a central place in the discipline of psychology as a whole.
"Flourishing refers to the experience of life going well. It is a combination of feeling good and functioning effectively. Flourishing is synonymous with a high level of mental well-being, and it epitomises mental health" (Huppert & So, 2011)

Aristotle: eudaimonia or"human flourishing"
Shifting the Focus
Positive Psychology is not meant to replace medication altogether as treatment on the negative side of the spectrum. Many of the Positive Psychology practices can be effective with these patients. However, medication is often necessary to get patients to a functioning level.
The Tetris
Effect
Your physical body is important for your mental health!
1998 17:1 negative-to-positive ratio in research
call for shift in focus to include Positive Psychology
Internal Locus of Control:


Actions Outcomes

(Intentional Activities)

External Locus of Control:

Environment/Others Outcomes

(Circumstances)


Locus of Control
HAPPINESS?
What
is
Intentional Activity
The Path of Least Resistance
"activation energy" (Csikszentmihalyi)
Positive Psychology
is not an argument against medication.
Because Positive Psychology provides a deeper understanding of mental health, this new field deserves to attain a central place in the discipline of psychology as a whole.
References
Neuroplasticity
"If we study merely what is average, we will remain merely average." - Shawn Achor
"the idea that the brain is malleable and can therefore change throughout our lives"
- Achor
Break
What Determines Happiness?
Biology
how naturally happy you are
Circumstances
external factors
Intentional Activity
what you choose to do
Historical Review of Well-Being Research

Lyubomirsky et al., 2005
ACTIVITY
Be HUMAN
The goal of Positive Psychology is not to rid the world of painful emotions.

Adversity and painful emotions are inevitable parts of life. Suppressing painful emotions forces you to also suppress positive emotions.
"empty patients" - Seligman
alive and not psychopaths! - Ben-Shahar
"were asked to take our inventory of character strengths online at www.authentichappiness.org and receive individualized feedback about their top five ('signature') strengths"
"were then asked to use one of these top [five] strengths in a new and different way every day for one week."
"Participants were given one week to write and then deliver a letter of gratitude in person to someone who had been especially kind to them but had never been properly thanked."
"Participants were asked to write down three things that went well each day and their causes every night for one week. In addition they were asked to provide a causal explanantion for each good thing."
Positive Psychology Progress: Emperical Validation of Interventions
Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions
Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions
Seligman & Steen et al., 2005
placebo: "write about their early memories every night for one week"
Seligman, 2012
"I received a promotion and a raise at work!"
That is great! I am so proud of you. I know how important that promotion was to you! Please relive the event with me now. Where were you when your boss told you? What did he say? How did you react? We should go out and celebrate."
Nonverbal: maintaining eye contact, displays of positive emotions, such as genuine smiling, touching, laughing.
"That is good news. You deserve it." Nonverbal: little to no active emotional expression.
"That sounds like a lot of responsibility to take on. Are you going to spend even fewer nights at home now?" Nonverbal: displays of negative emotions, such as furrowed brow, frowning.
"What's for dinner?" Nonverbal: little to no eye contact, turning away, leaving the room
2.9
:

1
1
:

3
11.6

:
1
5

:

1
Exercise
also boosts mood, increases performance, reduces stress, helps achieve flow (engagement)
+
-

Seligman & Steen et al., 2005
Let's brainstorm!
Happiness = Flourishing = Well-Being
New Field: Terminology In Flux
DSM-V
991 pages
Old Field: Terminology Well-Defined
Positive Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
"The objective of positive psychology is to unite the rigor of academic research with the accessibility of the self-help movement."
- Tal Ben-Shahar
Guess the percentage?
Your beliefs become your thoughts.
Your thoughts become your words.
Your words become your actions.
Your actions become your habits.
Your habits become your values.
You values become your destiny.

Gandhi
Set Point
genetically determined
assumed to be fixed
stable over time
immune to influence or control
Lyubomirsky et al., 2005
Circumstance
the incidental but relatively stable facts of an individuals life
national, geographical, cultural
demographics: age, gender, ethnicity
personal history, life events
Lyubomirsky et al., 2005
10%
50%
Intentional
discrete actions or practices
voluntary/choose to engage (can become habitual)
requires some degree of effort
Lyubomirsky et al., 2005
40%
life circumstances happen to people
activities are ways people act on their circumstance
Intentionality
AND
Applying Intentional Activities
Statement:
Example Responses:
Activity!
Positive Psychology
Abnormal
Psychology
"Normal"
Psychological
State
Positive Psychology is saying that more attention needs to be paid here
}
Martin Seligman
Tal Ben-Shahar
Shawn Achor
-5 groups
-How has this element contributed to your well-being?
- Make up physical movement representing your group's element
- One volunteer to the front

Seligman & Steen et al., 2005
Full transcript