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Khmer Empire

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Erin Atkinson

on 5 November 2012

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Transcript of Khmer Empire

The Angkor/Khmer Empire The Angkor Khmer Empire The Khmer Empire was one of the most powerful kingdoms in Southeast Asia,
based in what is now Cambodia and flourishing from the 9th to the 13th century The ancient Khmer rulers adopted a right political doctrine of its time, they had developed an intelligent irrigation system to control the water of the great Mekong River for agriculture. The Khmer Civilization had long been perished over 5 centuries ago, but it left outstanding monuments such as the great Khmer temples of Angkor Wat and Bayon and numerous unique sculptures like Apsara. The word "Angkor" means "City". "wat" means Temple, Angkor Wat literally means "City of Temple" In a village most of what we know about Khmer villages in the the time of Angkor was from a Chinese diplomat named Zhou Daguan . the weather influenced everyday life in khmer.
six months were fill with rain and the other six were dry The Rationale sap lake was an essential part of khmer people the water level would rise to 11 meters in the wet season and in the dry it would it could fall to as low as 1 metre. the Khmer people created Barays that when it rained in the wet season they where feed water from the surrounding rivers The Barays connected to rice fields
which is how they where able to make
so much rice Because of the rice the khmer poeple where able to
trade for money and built up their army With the large army the Khmer
Invaded and extended their land
The temples are the Khmer's greatest achievement The earliest Angkor temples were made mainly of brick. Good examples are the temple towers of Preah Ko, Lolei and Bakong at Hariharalaya. Decorations were usually carved into a stucco applied to the brick The only stone used by Angkorian builders was sandstone, obtained from the Kulen mountains. Since its obtainment was considerably more expensive than that of brick, sandstone only gradually came into use, and at first was used for particular elements such as door frames. The 10th century temple of Ta Keo is the first Angkorian temple to be constructed more or less entirely from Sandstone. Angkorian builders used laterite, a clay that is soft when taken from the ground but that hardens when exposed to the sun, for foundations and other hidden parts of buildings. Because the surface of laterite is uneven, it was not suitable for decorative carvings, unless first dressed with stucco. Laterite was more commonly used in the Khmer provinces than at Angkor itself. The empire's official religions included Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism, until Theravada Buddhism prevailed, even among the lower classes, after its introduction from Sri Lanka in the 13th century. the pillar of the Angkor Civilization was supported by the religious belief of Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism. The monarchs being regarded as the god-king were able to motivate the dedication of their people to serve the throne as a divine service. The empire's extensive irrigation system and military troops required massive laborers and manpower to maintain. The introduction of Theravada Buddhism in 13th century to the Khmers had turned out to hurt sublimely the basic foundation of the Angkor Empire in the long run. Theravada Buddhism taught the people to seek self-enlightenment, abandon worldly things and discourage any superstition belief which directly or indirectly means all deities and all evils. The sovereignty of the Angkorian monarch as a "god-king" or deva-raja was basically challenged. Less devotion of the people to the "god-king" led negative impact to the empire. The Khmers seem unwilling to work wholeheartedly for the king as a holy service as they had previously did. The formerly efficient irrigation and drainage system became silted up with less water supply and the rice crops, used to be cultivated two or three times a year, were dramatically dropped, thus weaken the productivity and the strength of the Angkor EmpireLess devotion of the people to the "god-king" led negative impact to the empire. The Khmers seem unwilling to work wholeheartedly for the king as a holy service as they had previously did. The formerly efficient irrigation and drainage system became silted up with less water supply and the rice crops, used to be cultivated two or three times a year, were dramatically dropped, thus weaken the productivity and the strength of the Angkor EmpireLess devotion of the people to the "god-king" led negative impact to the empire. The Khmers seem unwilling to work wholeheartedly for the king as a holy service as they had previously did. The formerly efficient irrigation and drainage system became silted up with less water supply and the rice crops, used to be cultivated two or three times a year, were dramatically dropped, thus weaken the productivity and the strength of the Angkor Empire Less devotion of the people to the "god-king" led negative impact to the empire.
The Khmers seem unwilling to work wholeheartedly for the king as a holy service
as they had previously did.
The formerly efficient irrigation and drainage system became silted up with less
water supply and the rice crops, used to be cultivated two or three times a year,
were dramatically dropped,
that weaked the productivity and the strength of the Angkor Empire THE FALL AOF THE KHMER As neighboring states of the Angkor grew, they became a major threat
to the empire, especially the Thai State of Ayuthaya in the Chaophaya
River Basin to the West. In order to protect the empire, the Angkor had
to direct portion of its manpower to secure strong armed forces, which in
turn, deprived itself from giving good maintenance to its irrigation system.
The road network built by Jayavarman VII had aided the transports of products and trades throughout the empire and also facilitated the Khmer troops to quell its neighbors. It had became a double-edged sword when the Angkor became weak as the invaders could easily marched in through this road network, instead of previously sailing up from the Mekong River. The newly emerged Ayuthaya, a Thai kingdom in the West became stronger. They use this road to march from the Chaophaya River basin through Phnomrung (in Burirum of modern Thailand) and then through Aranyapathet to attack right at the heart of Angkor and finally sacked the empire in 1431. The glory of the Angkor Civilization was terminated since that time.
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