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English 11 A Multimedia Presentation

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Chante P.

on 17 September 2013

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Transcript of English 11 A Multimedia Presentation

Unit 1 Review
National Literature
National literature is a window to a nation's mind. Given its literary contributions are created by the people of the nation the figurative and literal landscape--shaped by its history, customs, and traditions-- is conveyed through the thoughts, ideas, ideals, values, and opinions of profound, original authors. Aspects and variations of a nation's culture are revealed in its literature and topics, issues, and attributes specific to it can often be themes exhibited in written works. Additionally, a nation's literature is as varied as the authors themselves; it includes political speeches, poetry, philosophy, drama, fiction and non-fiction.
Primary Sources vs. Secondary Sources
Primary sources are personal observation of an event documented by a participant or witness of the occurrence who lived during the time period in question. Reading a primary source will have details and insights into an event that will bring the reader closer to the experience. Secondary sources on the other hand, are usually written well after an event by a person who neither experienced nor witnessed it and who must therefore rely on primary sources and known facts to compose an interpretation of what happened.
Declaration of Independence
The preamble of the Declaration of Independence states that it is necessary for the thirteen colonies to become their own nation--divorced from the bonds of Great Britain. Succeeding the preamble is the Declaration of Natural Rights which asserts the purpose of government is to protect the innate, irrevocable rights of its citizens. Failing or refusing to do so is justification enough for a people to abolish or change their existing government. In the list of grievances are outlined the purported injustices that colored King George III's rule. Among these grievances were the inability of colonists to influence law, the lack of representation on important and pervasive matters, the enforcement of the Quartering Act, and the defenselessness of the colonists from foreign attacks and internal strife as a consequence of the king prohibiting the election of new legislators. After numerous unsuccessful attempts at petitioning the king to rectify his wrongdoings and entreating the support of their fellow British subjects, the colonies' total freedom and independence from Great Britain is declared. The 56 signers of the document were representatives of the people from their respective colonies and their signatures stood as an affirmation of support for independence.
Early American Literature
Persuasive Writing
The purpose of persuasive writing is to persuade the reader to adopt the position of the writer or at the very least to reconsider their views on the subject. First, the author's side on a matter must be stated clearly and should be reinforced with facts, examples, sound reasoning, and expert opinions if possible. Persuasive writing calls for anticipation of the opponent's counter-arguments and thus an important element of writing persuasively is understanding the other side's perspective in order to effectively address their concerns and argue against their position. Another essential feature of persuasive writing is describing how accepting the writer's position and ideas for change will benefit the opponent as a strategy for providing incentive for the opposing side to alter their stance on an issue.




Argument Against Native Americans as Mascots
A primary argument against the use of Native American mascots is the charge that they perpetuate negative, incorrect stereotypes and caricatures of American Indian people. Native Americans have a long history of being dehumanized and subjects of what Fred Veilleux describes as cultural genocide. The institution of Native American mascots and disparaging names like "Redmen" and "Redskins" is a form of mockery, institutional racism and according to Veilleux it also distorts Native American identity and American history.
Primary Source
"Of Plymouth Plantation" by William Bradford
Secondary Source
Author:
Passenger on Mayflower, the ship that brought colonists to what would become Plymouth colony
Present during the establishment of the newly discovered land as a colony
Served as governor
"Plymouth Colony: Its History and People" by Eugene Aubrey Stratton
Author:
Born in 20th century
Published book in 1986
Did not live in Plymouth colony and does not have any direct observations of its beginnings or its inhabitants
Poetic Terms
Metrical Feet
A poem derives it rhythm from the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that make up its lines. Rhythm is dependent on the type of meter incorporated into the poem, which is a combination of metrical feet and metrical lines. Rhyme scheme is determined by how the words at the end of a line rhyme with other last words in other lines in the poem and is denoted by letters of the alphabet. Another poetic term is stanza which is akin to a paragraph in prose; a stanza is named based on how many lines it is made up of.
Iamb
- Unstressed Stressed
da DUM

Trochee
- Stressed Unstressed
DUM da

Dactyl
- Stressed Unstressed Unstressed
da da DUM

Anapest
- Unstressed Stressed
Dum da da
Metrical Lines
Monometer
- 1 foot per line

Dimeter
- 2 feet per line

Trimeter
- 3 feet per line

Tetrameter
- 4 feet per line

Pentameter
- 5 feet per line

Hexameter
- 6 feet per line

Heptameter
- 7 feet per line

Octameter
- 8 feet per line
Meter
Iambic
Pentameter
Iambic pentameter means there are five iambs per line. This is the most common meter used in English poetry and it most closely resembles natural speech.
The SHAttered WAter MADE a MISty DIN.

Great WAVES looked Over OTHers COMing in.

And THOUGH of DOing SOMEthing TO the SHORE

That WAter NEver DID to LAND beFORE.


-- Robert Frost, from "Once By the Pacific
Trochaic
Tetrameter
Trochaic tetrameter means there are four trochees per line. Note that the following example is considered catalectic, which means that the feet are incomplete
TYger! TYger! BURNing BRIGHT

IN the FORests OF the NIGHT
-- William Blake, from "The Tyger"
Rhyme Schemes
The shattered water made a misty
din
.
a
Great waves looked over others coming
in
,
a
And thought of doing something to the
shore b
That water never did to land
before
.
b
-- Robert Frost, from "Once in the Pacific"
The day is
ending
,
a
The night is
descending
;
a
The marsh is frozen,
The river
dead
.
b

Through clouds like
ashes c
The red sun
flashes c
On village windows
That glimmer
red
.
b
-- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from "Afternoon in February"
My mother taught me
purple

a
Although she never
wore it
.
b
Wash-grey was her
circle
,
a
The tenement her
orbit
.
b

My mother taught me
golden

c
And held me up to
see it
,
d
Above the broken
moldings
,
c
Beyond the filthy
street
.
d

My mother reached for
beauty

e
And for its lack she
died
,
f
Who knew so much of
duty

e
She could not teach me
pride
.
f
-- Evelyn Tooley Hunt, "Taught Me Purple"
Stanzas
Couplet

- 2 lines
Tercet
- 3 Lines
Quatrain
- 4 Lines
Quintet
- 5 Lines
Seset
- 6 Lines
Octave
- 8 lines
Puritan Beliefs
The belief system of the Puritans was based on John Calvin's teachings who believed that every human being was a sinner, salvation can not be attained through any actions of man as it is by the grace of God that people are saved, and that the destination of a person in their after-life is predetermined.
Additional

Beliefs
Literal interpretation of Bible
Life is a test of one's commitment to God
Although not known for certain, Puritans liked to believe they were part of those elected by God to gain entrance into heaven after the arrival of death and as such strove to lead holy lives as testament to that belief
An indication of being a member of the Elect was success on Earth
What is revealed by Puritan Sermons?
Sermons were an important part of Puritanism as Puritan authors and speakers were regarded as being endowed with the duty of illuminating God's intentions through their writings and speech. Revealed through sermons was the precarious state of nonbelievers and Puritans alike. No one could be confident or assured that they would not be sentenced to damnation especially if they were unconverted--in such a case the only certainty is that they are destined for an eternity in hell. Human beings are at the mercy of God's power with no means of evading his will and without believing or accepting Jesus Christ one is doomed. Therefore, it is best to be converted and to express and show one's faith in, devotion to, and worship of God.
The rich stories, myths, legends, tales, epics as well as migratory and ancestral accounts retold from generation to generation of Native Americans marks the start of American literature. Nature as a living spiritual mother graced with spiritual powers was a common theme in Native American spoken literature and main characters were often portrayed as animals or plants. A popular genre was that of creation stories which described the formation of the Earth, such as the Cheyenne variation of a well-known creation story in which a turtle supports the world on its back.
Poetry
Anne Bradstreet's "The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America" was the first published book of poetry in Colonial America. As the first African-American female poet, Phillis Wheatley wrote poetry against slavery and like Bradstreet injected religious themes and tones in her work. There was also the metaphysical poetry of the Puritans who emphasized a religious message in all their writing.
Native American Literature
Prose
The prose of American literature encompasses many forms or writing such as journals, diaries, pamphlets, autobiographies, histories, Puritan sermons, and slave narratives.
Historical Insights of Early American Literature
Early American and Colonial literature illustrated the journey to the New World and what life was like for early settlers and colonists through personal eye-witness accounts in journals, diaries, and personal narratives. Literary artifacts of significant events such as the Great Awakening, the American Revolution, and the birth of America as an independent nation expose the details that expand past the knowledge a secondary source can give. Sermons from religious revivalists during the Great Awakening show the words that terrified people into conversion and jolted those already converted but suffering from spiritual laziness out of their complacency with an electric shock of fervent religious passion. Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" reveals the thoughts many at the time were too reluctant to think or else too timid to speak. Then there are slave narratives such as Olaudah Equiano's "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, the African" that vividly and eloquently encapsulate the cruelty and tragedy of slavery in a way only a person who has lived it can truly express.
Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley was stolen from her birthplace in Senegal, West Africa around the age of seven and later sold to a wealthy Boston tailor named John Wheatley to be trained as a personal servant for his wife, Susanna. As it turned out, Phillis's life would deviate from that of a typical black slave's into a fortunate anomaly that enabled her to flourish intellectually. Noting her precociousness, the Wheatleys taught Phillis English as well as Latin and Greek. She also received an education in theology, mythology, literature, and ancient history. Poet Alexander Pope was one of her biggest influences along with John Milton. In her own poetry, Phillis was fond of the poetic form heroic couplet and writing in iambic pentameter. Christian themes and biblical symbolism were heavily prevalent in her poetry and more than a third of her poems were elegies devoted to famous people, friends, and the loved ones of those who sought her artistic and literary skills. She also wrote poetry that employed classical and neoclassical techniques as she was well-learned in Greek and Latin classics--she even translated Ovid's "Metamorphoses" and extended his lines with her own ideas in one of her epyllia. Phillis had both an American and British audience, but her first book of poems was published in London with the help of the Countess of Huntingdon after Boston publishers' refusal to print her works. It would seem most of Wheatley's work was intended for a Christian audience and churches especially regarding critical statements on slavery as churches were a greatly influential sector of society in the 1700s.
Bibliography
Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Phillis Wheatley." About.com Women's History. About.com, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

"Phillis Wheatley." NewWorldEncyclopedia.com. New World Encyclopedia, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

"Phillis Wheatley Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

O'Neale, Sandra A. "Phillis Wheatley." Poetryfoundation.org. Poetry Foundation, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

Martin, Wendy. "Anne Bradstreet." Poetryfoundation.org. Poetry Foundation, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Anne Bradstreet." About.com Women's History. About.com, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

Lombardi, Esther. "Anne Bradstreet." About.com Classic Literature. About.com, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

Lewis, Jone Johnson. "About Anne Bradstreet's Poetry." About.com Women's History. About.com, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

"Rowlandson, Mary White (1637–1710)." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 16 Sept. 2013.

"Mary Rowlandson." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2013.

Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Mary White Rowlandson." About.com Women's History. About.com, n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2013.

Scarbrough, Elizabeth. "Mary Rowlandson: The Captive Voice." The Undegraduate Review 7 (2011): 121-25. vc.bridgew.edu. Bridewater State University, 2011. Web. 16 Sept. 2013.

Carse, James. "Edwards, Jonathan (1703–1758)." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 17 Sept. 2013.

Zavada, Jack. "Jonathan Edwards Biography." About.com Christianity. About.com, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013.

Stout, Harry S. "Jonathan Edwards Center at Yale University." Edwards.yale.edu. Yale University, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013.

Anne Bradstreet
Mary Rowlandson
Johnathon Edwards
Anne Bradstreet is considered the first poet as well as the first women to have her poetry published in the New World. She was born in 1612 Northampshire, England where she was educated by her father, Thomas Dudley, who was a steward for the Puritan Earl of Lincoln. Given her father's role, Bradstreet had access the the earl's extensive library and read many well-known authors such as Virgil, Homer, Ovid, Hobbes, Milton, and Plutarch. In 1628 she and her family including her husband, immigrated to the first of America's colonies with the Winthrop Puritan group. Bradstreet's poetry was mostly intended for herself, husband, and children but her poems were also customarily spread to her family and friends. Although her poetry, especially that of "The Tenth Muse", was regarded as conventional in style in her time, it became less so as she continually wrote of her personal experiences and life as a Puritan wife, mother, and woman. Bradstreet's writing,laden with metaphors, served as an outlet for her emotions and thoughts that were by Puritan standards and moral codes supposed to be repressed and kept private especially that of the love between a wife and husband. Her poetry also revealed her conflict with her great love of earthly pleasure and the Puritan idea of a person's true treasures being in heaven if they are to be saved. In one of her poems, it seems she embraces the idea of poetry as a way for her to be immortal on Earth.
Mary Rowlandson was born in England around 1637 and immigrated with her parents to America where she would eventually settle in Lancaster, Massachusetts after 1653. In 1656 she became the wife of Reverend Joseph Rowlandson, the town's first minister and with whom she had three surviving children. If not for her captivity by a band of mutli-tribal Native Americans during the Metacom war, Rowlandson may not have become one of the first female prose writers in America. She and her three children were captured from their home along with 24 other captives and taken hostage in 1676; her personal narrative pioneered what would become known as the captivity genre. The purpose of her widely read book was to serve as a testament to and laudation of God's power and the strength of his will. With an audience largely comprised of fellow Puritans, Rowlandson had to be quite restrained in the content and expressions of her narrative. She was restricted by her religious faith and religious community in what she could reveal about what happened during her captivity and her emotional reactions. Although a lot of her narrative reads as a person who is emotionally detached from the described events, Rowland's subjectivity did seep through and she did not always write in ways that perfectly aligned with Puritan views and conventions. God was supposed to be explicitly attributed with the credit for her survival, strength, and redemption but their were instances where she did not emphasize God as the source of a quality such as when she described the exemplary knitting and bargaining skills she developed while in captivity.
Johnathan Edwards was born on October 05, 1703 in East Windsor, Connecticut to a pastor father as well as the daughter of a pastor. He was schooled by his father and at age thirteen he enrolled into Yale College where he obtained his master's degree and graduated as valedictorian. After his full conversion into Puritanism he decided on ministry as his career of choice and erased previous reluctance on certain theological concepts and doctrine such as predetermination. With the passing of his grandfather in 1729, Edwards succeeded his grandfather's position in the Northampton pulpit as senior minister.As a preacher Edwards's audience encompassed non-Puritans in addition to Puritans and his sermons inspired many conversions. Edwards's sermons were passionate, vivid, and laced with intricate imagery that etched his message into the listeners' minds. The purpose of his sermons were the salvation of his followers and listeners through understanding and applying his teachings of God, Jesus Christ, and the importance of faith and being in tune to the presence, glory, and goodness of God.
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