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Theodore Roosevelt and Progressivism
Transcript of Theodore Roosevelt and Progressivism
Introduction- Theodore Roosevelt
progressivism: sought out solutions to problems caused by industrialism, rapid growth, and the economic depression
It also wanted the government to take the lead and came from all over the political spectrum
critics who were so preoccupied with exposing wrongs in society that they ignored any positive elements
They aim to arouse public anger
force government to take action
African-American and the Progressive Movement
author of The Octopus, 1901
his plan was to expose the monopolies in the California railway industry
The (fiction) novel follows railway ranchers in their struggles
it ends with the death of most main characters
The progressives supported the African-Americans to combat racism and wanted to help achieve equality
The Jim Crows laws were continuing to segregate everyone
The tensions between the whites and blacks with riots
1908 a riot had broken out because white mobs had killed several blacks and injured many more
It destroyed businesses and residential houses and the blacks fled the city
In 1909 a multi-racial group had met in New York and hounded the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP)
The African-American community had started developing newspapers and magazines that would help advance Civil Rights
Some examples are the 'Chicago Defender' and the 'Pittsburgh Courier', the white news agents refused to circulate them
inspired Roosevelt's 1st big lawsuit towards large monolpolies, targeting J.P Morgans
Reforms Benefiting Workers
wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company, 1904
was published in McClures magazine
the article describes Rockefeller's tactics to gain control of the oil industry
Lincoln Steffens and Upton Sinclair
both were muckraking journalists
both were successful in their protests, achieving immediate political reforms
Progressives pushed for reforms to:
improve working conditions
end child labour
make cities safer
Reached out to immigrants.
Many reforms came from laws passed at the state level.
Judges often struck them down.
Ex., Supreme Court ruled that a state law restricting the working hours of bakers was unconstitutional.
It also upheld a state law limiting female factory workers to ten hours per day. (Louis Brandeis)
W.E.B. Du Bois
Teddy Roosevelt Background
The United States became an imperial power by winning the Spanish-American War (1898)
Under Mckinley's leadership, the modern United States warships had expanded quickly
This proved to be the key to help America have a quick victory over the Spanish
series of articles accusing Philadelphia as falling from the birthplace of democracy, and becoming the nations most corrupt city
caused cities across US to break free from bigger corps. control
Born in 1858 and was largely influenced by his father
He was always helping the poor, boxing, or wrestling
After being home-schooled he went to Harvard
He lost his first wife to Brights disease and this made him leave politics for some time
He then came back after a few
years, and was the president
most famous of all the muckrakers
exposed worker exploitation in a meatpacking industry
Roosevelts was so upset by the conditions described in the book that he passed the Federal Meat Inspection act in 1906
Campaigned against child labour.
Congress passed Child Labor Act (1916).
But it was struck down since it went beyond the federal government's powers to regulate interstate commerce.
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) established child labour standards.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Caught fire on March 5, 1911
on top 3 floors of a 10 floor building
new safety laws
factory safety lessons learned the hard way
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois.
Grew up in Massachusetts.
Excelled in school.
Discouraged from going to Harvard University
First African American to get a PhD from Harvard.
The Souls of Black Folk
Founded the Niagara Movement for racial equality.
Helped form the National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Thankyou for listening!
All levels of government saw political reform
These progressive changes were most seen at the municipal level
Many cities implemented the use of trained professionals such as a mayor and council instead of politicians to commission
Governor of Wisconsin and Senator Robert La Follette was a early advocate of progressionism and allied with the progressive wing of the republican party
Referendums: Government Submits proposal to public to be decided by popular vote
Recalls: Gives voters the right to petition to have government official stand for re-election at any time
POlitical reforms cont...
At the federal level of government was Theodore Roosevelt
His administration prosecuted 44 corperations under the Sherman Antitrust act
The first lawsuit was against J.P Morgans Northern Securities Company
Supreme court in 1904 states that Northern securities company is in violation of act
Theodore Roosevelt called for progressive reforms such as pensions, unemployment, sufferage, and a ban on child labour