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Behavioral Responses to personal space violation

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Sara S

on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Behavioral Responses to personal space violation

Behavioral Responses to personal space violations
Sara Stevens
Aaron Tellis
Alexandra Navarrete
Briana Comer
Saint Xavier University

Introduction
Prior Research

-Two theories regarding Personal Space
-Personal Space Bubble (Hayduk, 1983)
-Personal Space Buffer Zone (Dosey, 1969)
Introduction
Personal Space Bubble
Bubble of comfort that surrounds a person, when violated causes discomfort (Hayduk, 1983)

Area of space around the body that a person believes belongs to them (Kahn & Kamal, 2010)
Introduction
Buffer zone
Area of space that defends against emotional damage or attacks (Dosey, 1969)

Four zones to measure Personal Space (Perry, Rubinsten, Peled & Shamay-Tsoory, 2013)
Four zones- Intimate Distance
Personal Distance
Social Distance
Public Distance
introduction
Personal Space Bubble
Individual
Comfort Level
Typically 2 to 4 Feet (Kahn & Kamal, 2010)
Based off Gender and Culture (Kahn & Kamal, 2010)
Cultures and Genders of same groups more likely to be closer to one another (Matthews & Matlock, 2011)
Introduction
Buffer Zone
Protection
No Numerical Value
Comfort Level with Individual
Four Zones (Perry et al. 2013)
Intimate- see, touch, hear and smell individual.
Personal- close enough to see, touch, hear, but not smell.
Social- can gaze and hear loud voices
Public- can hear and see body parts
Hypothesis
We hypothesize that a personal space violation of 2 feet from an individual will result in more of a stepping back reaction than a personal space violation of 4 feet.
Methods
Participants
120 College Students from Saint Xavier University hallways
Randomly Selected
The participant was not aware of the study
Methods
Design
2 X 2 Between Subjects Design.
Independent Variable- Distance of Personal Space
Dependent Variable- Participant’s Reaction.
Independent Variable was manipulated by giving either 2 or 4 feet of distance.
Dependent Variable was measured by recording if the participants stayed or moved away.
Methods
Procedure
Male Confederate invades space with 2 or 4 Feet
Confederate asks participants"Excuse me, where is N114?"
3 Observers Record Data if participants move or stay
results
We conducted a Chi-Squares Test to determine how effective our Personal Space Violation experiment was.
We used a 2x2 between design measuring whether the participants stepped back or stayed still when the confederate approached them within two feet or four feet.
(N = 120) There were 60 participants that were approached within two feet of personal space and 60 participants that were approached within four feet of personal space.

results
(65%) of participants stepped back from the confederate when they were approached within two feet of their personal space.
(35%) of participants stayed still when they were approached within two feet of their personal space.
(53%) of participants stayed still when the confederate approached them within four feet of their personal space.
(47%) of participants moved away when the confederate approached them within four feet of their personal space.

results
Personal Space Value Table
Results
Tying it In
Overall, (56%) of the total participants stepped back from the confederate when he approached them and (44%) of the total participants stayed still.
Our hypothesis was supported, our p-value (p = .457) was < .05 making it significant.
Based on our date, there is a significant relationship between the distance and violating the individuals personal space.

Discussion
Interpretation of Results
• We hypothesized that personal space of 2 feet will result in more reactions than a personal space violation of 4 feet
• After experimenting with 120 participants, a significant amount of people adjusted the distance between themselves and our confederate.

Discussion
Previous Research
• Most of the researched experiments tell that the participants felt a sense of discomfort, but does not tell how the participant reacted.
Kahn and Kamal (2010)
Skolnick (1997)

discussion
Implications
The importance of Personal Space to individuals
People need at least a 4 feet distance between them and the person they are talking too
People should be aware of personal space to avoid offending or upsetting others

Discussion
Limitations
The race and gender of the confederate
The data collectors following the confederate
The individual needs of the participants
The location of the experiment
If the participant was staff or student
Did not measure personal space of friends, only unknown participants

Discussion
Conclusion
Overall, we learned through the experiment that people prefer having 4 feet of distance rather than 2 feet of distance when it comes to personal space.
Learn to take in account the importance of personal space to avoid uncomfortable situations.

References
Conchran, C.D., & Urbanczyk, S. (1982). The effect of availability of vertical space on personal space. Journal of Psychology, 111(1), 137.

Dosey, M. A., & Meisels, M. (1969). Personal space and self-protection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11(2), 93-97. doi: 10.1037/h0027040

Gifford, R., & Sacilotto, P. A. (1993). Social isolation and personal space: A field study. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 25(2), 165-174. doi: 10.1037/h0078784

Hayduk, L.A. (1981). The permeability of personal space. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportment, 13(3), 274-287. doi:10.1037/h0081182

Hayduk, L. A. (1983). Personal space: Where we now stand. Psychological Bulletin, 94(2), 293-335. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.94.2.293

Khan, A., & Kamal, A. (2010). Exploring reactions to invasion of personal space in university students. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 20(2), 80-99.




references
Matthews, J. L., & Matlock, T.T. (2011). Understanding the link between spatial distance and social distance. Social Psychology, 42(3), 185-192. doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000062

McDowell, K.V. (1972). Violations of personal space. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportment, 4(3), 210-217. doi:10.1037/h0082306

Perry, A., Peled, L., Shamay-Tsoory, S., & Rubinsten, O. (2013). Don't stand so close to me: A behavioral and ERP study of preferred interpersonal distance. Neuroimage, 83761-769. doi:10.1016/j. neuroimage.2013.07.042

Skolnick, P., Frasier, L., & Hadar, I.(1997). Do you speak to strangers? A study of invasions of personal space. European Journal of Social Psychology, 7(3), 375-381.


Buffer Zone
Personal Space Bubble
A Chi-Square test for Personal Space Violation for a violation within two feet or four feet. The relationship between the variables of stepping back and staying still when personal space violated was significant, (N=120) p=.457. Participants were more likely to step back when their personal space was violated within two feet of their personal space.
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