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The Victorian Era
Transcript of The Victorian Era
1829 - Catholic Emancipation
1834 - Slavery is outlawed in the British colonies
1844 - The Irish potato famine begins
1846 -The repealing of the Corn Laws begins era of free trade.
1847 - The Ten Hours Act restricts children's working hours
1853 - 1856 - The Crimean War
1878 - The first street lamp in England
1879 - Edison invents the electric light bulb
THE VICTORIAN ERA
The History of the Victorian Era
"Cry of the Children"
Elizabeth Barren Browning
"Charge of the Light Brigade"
Lord Alfred Tennyson
Charge of the Light Brigade
- written after Browning heard about horrific conditions of child employment in mines and factories
- response to the growing industrialization around her
- Published Aug. 1843
- Narrative Form
- 13 stanzas
- 12 lines per stanza
- Each stanza has its
own rhyme scheme
When was the Victorian era, and what were some significant historical events during the era?
How did the historical events of the Victorian Era affect Victorian poetry?
- Inspired by the Crimean War
- tribute to soldiers in the war
- glorifies war and violence
- (National Center)
During the Victorian Era, how was poetry in Africa similar/affected?
What are some recurring themes and styles in Victorian poetry?
Who were some of the most prominent poets of the Victorian era?
What were some of the characteristic poems of the Victorian era?
Group Guided Analysis of Poem:
- 6 stanzas
- 6 to 12 lines per stanza
- dimeter (2 stressed syllables)
- varied rhyme scheme
- used of repetition
- British occupation in India
- embedded racism
- Social Darwinism
Title: "A Musical Instrument" by Elizabeth Barrett Browning
- 5 Stanzas
- use of dialogue
"The Lady of Shalott"
Lord Alfred Tennyson
- separate spheres
- restrictions on women
- (Academy of American
Gerald Manley Hopkins
- 4 numbered parts
-4 stanzas in 1st two parts and 5 stanzas in 2nd two parts
-9 lines per stanza
-AAAABCCCB rhyme scheme
- Italian Sonnet
- octave + sestet
- varies slightly from iambic pentameter
- electric force = metaphor for God's grandeur
-praising god and faith in religion
- wishing men could have more faith
Aflred, Lord Tennyson
lived 1809 - 1892
Mother loved poetry and encouraged Tennyson to write
felt motivated to celebrate the quickly changing industrial world
wrote about the conflict between rural England and the contemporary world
official poetic spokesman for reign of Victoria
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Gerard Manley Hopkins
English poet, 1806-1861
poetry was extremely popular in England and the US
brought up in strongly religious household, contributing to a Christian theme present in much of her work
advocated abolition of slavery and reform of child labor legislation (poetryfoundation.org)
- reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
- "separate spheres" - female roles reflected in poetry
- the idea of the Church that everything was sacred
-improvements in technology (Industrial Revolution)
- people moved from the countryside to the cities
- new ideas
-Victorian poets were more likely to have a scientific conviction of God's absence (EX: "Dover Beach" by Matthew Arnold )
-whimsy and nonsense compared to romantic
- (The Victorian Timeline)
- 1865- 1936
- Born in Bombay, British India
- familiar with the cultures and languages of India
- Sent to England when he was 5 for British education
- foster family was not friendly
- found comfort in stories and books
- returned to India in1882 to write for Anglo-Indian
-often glorified the common soldier in his poems
English poet who lived from 1822-1888 (poets.org)
was categorized as a sage writer, one who criticized and instructed about contemporary social issues (poets.org)
known for his poem "Dover Beach" and others that did not share in Browning's and Tennyson's struggle against romanticism (victorianweb.org)
Cultural Connection: Africa
- Thomas Pringle: "Father of South African Poetry"
- Scottish writer and abolitionist
- Emigrated to South Africa
- Since he was lame, he opened a school and made 2 newspapers (South African Journal and South African Commercial Advertiser)
- Openly criticized colonial government and his papers were shut down
- Published an anti-slavery article that led to his appointment as Secretary of the Anti-Slavery Society
- Helped an escaped slave, Mary Prince, write an autobiography which inspired many other Africans (especially South Africans) to write
- Published African sketches and books of poems (Ephemerides)
- While part of the Anti-Slavery Society, helped get the Reformed British Parliament to pass a bill ending slavery in all British dominions which was the goal of the Society
Raymond Zhu, Amanda Zhang, Yusuf Hafiane, Mikayla Bryant, Dylan Chapa
Characteristics of the Movement
reaction against romanticism
tried to show "life as it was"
relied on poets and artists to demonstrate reason and to show reality
use of sensory elements (imagery) to convey struggles between religion and science and nature and romance
religious skepticism - stressed faith but with skepticism from scientific discoveries
longing for old days of religous order
reflected changes in the world
(The Literature Network)
Born into and grew up in a very religious and artistic household
put his responsibilities as a priest before his poetry
invented the "sprung rhythm" in his poetry
Themes of faith and doubt in poems
"The Slave Dealer"