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OCR A2 PE Stress, Arousal and Anxiety

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by

Geraint Davies

on 6 September 2017

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Transcript of OCR A2 PE Stress, Arousal and Anxiety

Today: Your Mock Exam
Pass Mark = 78%
Failure = a resit on Wednesday morning
Do you recognise her?
How did that make you 'feel'?
What were the physical and psychological effects?
What factors caused you to feel like this?
- lack of preparation?
- a feeling that you would fail?
- fear of the outcome?
Starter
Increased drive to succeed
fear of making mistakes
Defining Stress, Arousal and Anxiety
‘a
negative
emotional state with
feelings
of nervousness, worry and apprehension (Weinberg and Gould, 1995)
Stress is the process whereby an individual
perceives
a threat and
responds
with a series of
psychological
and
physiological
changes (Jarvis, 1999)
Consequences of Anxiety
Increased Focus
Improved Concentration
Higher Energy
Increased Drive
Seeking Challenges
Increased Blood Flow
Positive
Doubts about Performance
Fear of Failure
Reduced Confidence
Muscle Tension
Extreme Nervousness
Perceived Inability to Cope
Negative
Learning Outcomes
ALL:
Define arousal, stress and anxiety; identify at least three symptoms associated with stress and anxiety

MOST:
describe the consequences of stress and anxiety

SOME:
Create definitions for stress, arousal and anxiety, applying each to sporting examples
Arousal, Stress & Anxiety in Sports Performance
Human Evolution has been based around our survival

In order to survive we have had to be able to react quickly to situations

These reactions are both physiological and psychological and are essential to preserve our safety
Fight or Flight
An energised state of activation that drives a person to learn or perform
How does stress, arousal and anxiety impact on sport and the wider world?
Why does this topic matter?
Draw a picture of the 3 things that stress you out the most
Explain how they make you feel!
TASK 1
TASK 2
Complete the word blanks for the definition of anxiety
‘Anxiety occurs where there is a substantial imbalance between the individual’s
perception of their ability,
their
perception of the demands
and
perception of the

importance of the situation

Causes of Anxiety
Varies from
deep sleep
to
intense excitement
TASK 3:
Draw this relationship
Causes of Anxiety
Perception of ability to cope
Perception of Task Demands
Perception of the Importance
of the Situation
Stress & Anxiety are not always negative
Individual and Situational Stressors
The things that make us anxious in sport generally fall into 2 categories
1.
Situational factors:
event importance
- competing in the Olympic Games
event expectations
- are you going to win the gold medal?
2.
Individual factors:
personality
- do you have a tendency to worry or cope with competition?
self-esteem
- do you feel you are good enough to succeed?
self-efficacy
- are you confident enough in your own performance capability?
TASK 4
TASK 7
Stress
Arousal
Anxiety
‘A negative emotional state associated with feelings of apprehension and worry caused by over arousal as a result of being stressed.’ (Wesson, Wiggins, Thompson & Hartigan, 2000)
Anxiety - The Link
L21
Forms of Anxiety
Cognitive
Somatic
L5
Perception of ability to cope
Perception of Task Demands
Perception of the Importance
of the Situation
Feedback for GD
Likes:
Dislikes:
L6
Question 1
a negative emotional state with feelings of nervousness, worry and apprehension
Question 2
Define Stress
Question 3
Define Trait anxiety
Question 4
Identify cognitive, somatic and behavioural effects of anxiety
Question 5
An energised state of activation that drives a person to learn or perform
Question 6 - Individual Question
Individually create a sporting example of a performer experiencing hyperstress….
Question 7
Identify 3 stressors that a sports performer may experience
Question 8
What causes attentional narrowing, and the inhibition of information processing
Question 9
Individual question
Individually define state anxiety
Question 10
What are the 3 factors that determine whether or not a person becomes anxious as a result of stress?
Part of our personality that makes some individuals highly anxious in a variety of situations.
Situation specific


Different
sections
of an activity may lead to different
levels
of anxiety
Temporary and changing mood state that is influenced by the situation e.g. a threatening event
Somatic Anxiety
Trait and State Anxiety
Cognitive Anxiety
Trait Anxiety
How the body responds to a situation...
Increased heart rate
Increased breathing rate
Feel sick
Sweaty palms
Twiddle fingers & toes
State Anxiety
Psychological effects of anxiety...
General nervousness
Worry
Negative thoughts of failure
A performer's response as a result of their own
unique characteristics

Some people are
generally more nervous
than others

e.g.
standing on the blocks at swimming
Complete TASK 5 a, b and c
increased confidence
Types of Anxiety
Read the section related to stress & Anxiety
Correct any errors that you find and give a short piece of feedback based on how you judge the quality of detail and style of writing
Starter
On your white board record details of what you can remember from last lesson....
Share your homework
Summary
Task 6
L7
L8
Anxiety is multidimensional – a mix of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self confidence
Physiological tests –
heart rate monitor, galvanic skin response
Strengths and weaknesses?

Observations – watching performances
Strengths and weaknesses?

true to life
subjective measure
observer bias
arousal may be increased when being observed
can be made during, before or after the event
directly related to performance
TASK 2
Anxiety is interactive – mix of state, trait and individual differences
Competitive anxiety varies from complete calm to complete panic depending on the performer and the situation
TASK 3
Factual measures, tests done
during performance
TASK 4
Equipment can be
cumbersome
, being measured causes
increased stress
systematically and
scientifically recorded
and would be able to
quantify accurately
disadvantages are that such devices are
affected by
the
exercise intensity
being undertaken
Controlling Stress/Anxiety
Positive Self Talk-

Convincing yourself you can do it or reminding yourself of tactics

Goal Setting-
Motivating yourself by setting targets

Attentional Control

Cue utilisation
Ability to focus on relevant cues – avoid distractions

Visualisation-
Creating a mental picture of doing a task in a real game situation, and succeeding

Imagery-
Using the senses to recreate a past success. Attempts to build confidence

Mental Rehearsal-
Going over the performance in the mind, maybe rehearse a sequence

Biofeedback
Measures physiological factors such as HR or sweating. Used to encourage athletes to recognise signs of anxiety

Centering
– breathing & focussing on the relevant cue

Progressive Muscular Relaxation
Reduces muscular tension – involves tensing then relaxing muscles in tern

Goal Setting-
Motivating yourself by setting targets

Breathing Control-
deep breathing reduces stress by giving oxygen to all parts of the lungs.

Somatic
Cognitive
Message Relay
Work in a team of 3
- One at a time
- come to the front
- read the description
- then share it with your group ONCE YOU HAVE SAT DOWN!
Add notes to the stars....
Re-
Homework
Select one method for controlling anxiety. Produce a small information leaflet on the method which includes but not limited to:

 A definition of anxiety (1 mark)
 An explanation of the 4 categories of anxiety (8 marks)
 An explanation of the method you have chosen (4 marks)
 An attractive layout and design (4 marks)

Learning Outcome Muddle
ALL:
Identify and describe the methods for controlling somatic and cognitive anxiety; identify strengths and weaknesses of measuring anxiety
MOST:
Explain what Martens found using the CSAI-2 and SCAT test
SOME:
Synthesise learning from the whole stress/anxiety topic
Past Exam Questions
Have a go of each question on your hand outs
Focus is on being
direct,

concise
and
applied
Starter TASK 1
TASK 2: Explain the links between the images
TASK 3
Dry mouth
Blushing
Fear
loss of confidence
Poor concentration
Zone of Optimal Functioning
The unique level of arousal for each athlete, which allows them to perform with maximum concentration and effort
Characteristics of Zone
– effortless movement, good selective attention, quick decision making, not distracted
This theory suggests that each individual has their own zone.
CSIKZENTMIHALYI
flow is an
optimal
experience
which is
intrinsically
rewarding
flow is a period of peak performance
when the performer feels totally involved
without effort without having to concentrate
if
skill level

exceeds
task demands (task is too easy)
performer is
bored
if
task demands
exceed skill level (task is
too hard
)
performer becomes
anxious
PEAK FLOW IS ACHIEVED WHEN performer:
TASK 2:
According to Martens (1992), how does arousal and anxiety influence Peak Flow?
has positive mental attitude
controls anxiety
maintains concentration and confidence (maintains focus)
maintains peak fitness
Peak Flow Theory
This idea depends on the
‘inverted U’
hypothesis
in which as
athlete A's
arousal is increased, his or her performance will improve
up to a point (the optimum)
after which more arousal will lead to loss of performance

ZONE OF OPTIMUM FUNCTIONING - HANIN
other athletes will peak at
medium arousal (A)

different athletes will respond differently to the same arousal situations

they will have different zones of arousal
An athlete’s best performance will be in a zone (not just a point of optimum performance)

ZONE OF OPTIMUM FUNCTIONING
Complete
question 4
based on this concept
Reflection
Link to Stress & Anxiety
Draw a typical Inverted 'U' and then compare and contrast it to the ZOF....
optimum level of arousal is
not always at mid point
of the inverted U
best performance will vary between sportspeople
some athletes will peak at
low arousal (C)

further athletes will peak at
high arousal (B)
for the same task

Hanin's Zone of Optimal Functioning
The Zone
optimum performances depend on
personality
,
skill
or
task
and
degree of habit -
(otherwise known as?)

habit = strength and permanence of a correctly learned skill
Starter
Complete the graph and demonstrate your knowledge of the Zone of Optimal Functioning
https://academy.sportlyzer.com/wiki/arousal-and-performance/individual-zones-of-optimal-functioning-izof/
Use Page 259 and....
Peak Flow Theory
TASK 1: Use the internet and text book to help
TASK 2: How do arousal and anxiety influence Peak Flow?
What Have you Learned Today?
January 2013

Explain what is meant by ‘state anxiety’ and ‘Trait anxiety’.

Give a practical example of how anxiety might influence performance in sport. [5]


TASK 3:
Describe how each of the factors in your table can facilitate peak flow.
Full transcript