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Transcript of Leadership
Effects of Unequal Power
Five types of power in groups.
Power is necessary for functional groups.
Unequal Power Leads To:
Distrust between members
Reduced problem solving capacity
Disatisfaction among the low power members
High power members may resort to threats and/or coercion to maintain their power
Providing incentives to other group members.
Only effective if group desires the rewards offered.
Can have negative consequences if group feels they are being bribed.
Superior versus subordinate conflict
Can elicit feelings of stress and distrust in subordinate.
Should be used sparingly, if at all.
Based on perception of entitlement: Age, Intelligence, or Election.
Power is relational, not personal: A Supervisor and his/her employees, Mentor and Mentee.
Influence by identification.
Desire to be like someone else, and will therefore behave in character for the person they admire.
Example: Professional athlete/fan.
Is it power? Or influence?
Is the foundational desire to lead others or to control others?
Leading with Power
Controlling a group to focus on your interests/profit.
Resorting to manipulative tactics to maintain control of the group.
Conflicts within the group disengage others, group mission distorted, power struggles, lacks honesty and integrity.
Influencing with Intergrity
Seeks active participation from all group members.
Encourages growth in a positive direction.
Builds on individuals strengths for group success.
The perception of expertise influences another.
Power is influenced by intelligence or knowledge.
Only effective when expert is trusted.
Power can be reduced when confidence is diminished.
Example: Clinician/client relationship, Doctor/patient.
Assist one another in leading the group
Inexperienced leaders can be mentored
Nonverbal communication is more easily identified
Co-leaders can support one another
Some groups need two leaders (groups for couples, etc.)
"Leaders are born, not made."
These individuals usually emerge naturally instead of trained.
They are :
Major Approaches to Leadership
Designated to disappoint?
These individuals are appointed to a leadership position.
Behavior of leaders of the position approach depends on the requirements of the position
Which makes it hard to identify which behavors are of a leader and which aren't
"Which is best x or y?"
"Do x or y as you see fit."
"Serve first. . . work with"
If a group is dominated by a few powerful members, the lower-power members will be less likely to participate and contribute.
When power is balanced, all members are more cooperative.
Create a Positive Atmosphere
Summarize Key Points
These individuals are focused on fulfilling the needs of the group.
Servant leaders are:
committed to growth
Members have to pay for two facilitators.
Co-Leaders in constant conflict and disagreement are unproductive in accomplishing group goals
The theory of leadership emphasized in this chapter is the distributed-functions approach, which asserts that every group member takes on leadership responsibilities at various times, and every effective action by a member is simultaneously an effective leadership action.
Comprehend how to start and lead a group
- Prepare for each group and for each group session even if you have experience.
View the group as a new member would view it by asking questions like:
- What will be the goals of this group?
- Why am I joining?
- Will my personal goals be met?
- Will I feel comfortable?
- Will I be acceptable? etc.
To be effectively form and lead a group:
By answering to the following questions, the leader will be be able to clarify the goals of the group:
- How many members are expected?
- What are their characteristics: age, socioeconomic, status, racial and ethnic background, gender, educational/professional background?
- How knowledgeable are the members about the topics the group will be dealing with?
- What are the likely personal goals of the various members? etc.
If the group meets more than once, the leader should consider reviewing these kind of questions:
- Have the overall goals have been decided upon and clarified?
- If not, what needs to be done in this clarification process?
- Is the group making adequate progress in accomplishing its goals? etc.
Select a relevant content.
Use examples- they help to illustrate key concept and stimulate the participants.
Present materials in a logical order.
Plan the time.
Chang the pace
- people pay attention longer if there is an occasional change of pace. Long lecture or discussion can become boring.
Planning a session
Listening to music
And being alone to clear the mind.
Some anxiety, in fact, is helpful because it increases alertness. Too much anxiety, however, reduces effectiveness.
Practice in leading groups also builds confidence and reduces anxiety.
Relaxing before you start a session
Cues upon entering the meeting room.
It is essential that a leader be on time, but arriving early is better because it gives access to:
see the materials
any other needs in place as planned.
The leader can gain information about the interests of the participants from their age, gender, clothes, and personal appearance, conversation, and interaction with one another.
An effective leader observes such cues and uses them to create an initial bond with the participants.
Seating is important for several reasons:
It can affect who talks to whom and influence leadership roles.
As a result, it can affect group cohesion.
The group leader must be able to make eye contact with everyone to obtain nonverbal feedback on what the members are thinking and feeling.
Seating in circle.
- this is ideal for generating discussion, encouraging a sense of equal status for each member, and promoting group openness and cohesion.
Seating on tables
- a place to write and put work materials.
- members feel more comfortable at a table because they can lean on it.
- restrict movements
- serve as barriers between people.
The leader's credentials should be summarized at the first meting.
The leader should consider learning the name of the members as quick as possible.
In small groups, members can introduce themselves individually, perhaps using an ice breaker.
The leader of a group should be clear as to his or her roles and responsibilities.
- this will help the group to select goals and then make decisions about the tasks and responsibilities that each member will have in working toward the goals of the group.
The leader should be modest about personal skills and resources.
The leader must also be prepared to explain the reasoning behind exercises and other actions or activities.
Most meetings are effective if the leader provide:
several days before hand.
a brief review of the agenda at the beginning of the meeting.
- this will give the members the opportunities to suggest additions, deletions, or other changes.
Understand that leadership is a shared responsibility.
use decision-making procedures best suited for the issues facing a particular group.
use a problem-solving approach to handle the issues and problems facing the group.
create a cooperative atmosphere rather than a competitive one etc.
Leaders are not born, they are made through training, practices and experience.
Additional guidelines for leading a group
WHERE ARE YOU?
"Leaders you admire"