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W2--Emergence of Governments & First Empires

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Chris Drowne

on 7 October 2013

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Transcript of W2--Emergence of Governments & First Empires

List the main stregths
List the main weaknesses
List the top opportunities
List the main threats
Emergence of Government
& First Empires
Define Civilization
Surplus, bureaucracy
Writing, +/- circumstances
Why near water?
Role of government?
Good gment or bad?
Different types
Sumerians, Babylonia, Egypt
Indus Valley, Zhou & Qin
Ancient Greece & Rome
First Dark Age 1800-1200 BCE
Early River Civilizations
Why all early civilizations
near water?
irrigation, surplus ag
Fertile Crescent
Tigris & Euphrates societies grow, compete, war
Mesopotamian rulers by Divine Right
Sargon unites Sumeria in 2360 BC
Hammurabi sets up Babylonian Empire, 1782 BC
adopts Sumerian culture, rule of law, Code, fair?
rise of Egypt around Nile, great soil, deserts protect
Upper &
Nile, area
great soil, deserts protect
Menes, U & L, c. 3000 BCE
Pharaohs=gods to be served
armies, monuments, stone
taxes, bureaucracy, sailors
rigid class system, women
kids, art, cheery, afterlife, med
maat, monotheism
Persians c. 525 BCE
Indus Valley
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro, 2500-1700 BCE
fertile soil & Indus River, Ganges River
Pakistan Region
pop grow until disease?
Econ fall?
moved to Fertile Crescent
early writing can’t be
translated, structure obvious
few grave sites, seals
grid cities,
watertight bricks
Maurya Empire (321-185 BC)
After Alex Great, Ganges Valley Empire in
Chandragupta Maurya (321-298 BCE)
Asoka (269-232 BCE)
small province in N India
nepotism governors
public works, taxes, trade w/ China
bureaucracy all huge
rulers a bit harsh (Sid c.600 BCE)
until convert to Buddhism
compassion softened
codify laws on stone pillars
too peaceful to stand after 185 BC
Gupta Empire (320-600 AD)
Chandragupta I (320-375 AD), India
Chandragupta II (375-415 AD), econ
India, China, Byzantium trade, exchange
peace allows culture to flourish
universities, Sanskrit, art, poetry
decimal system, 1-9 plus 0
trade records w/ Arabs (Arabic)
pi, circumference, diameter
Gupta, cont.
taxes, gifts to central
Emp related to Gods
marriage for regional alliances
small towns independent
Hinduism prominent, temples
Priests & history, pub works
strict class system, no mixing
Buddhism present, but small
women could own prop, business,
but not inherit
marriages arranged, discuss sati
infighting opened door to White Hun, chaos
Yellow River to Yangtze, 54 million
Shang set up, but said unworthy
Haves and have nots, no social mobility
Zhou & allies in, Wuwang (1122-1104 BCE)
Duke of Zhou, Zhougond, Western Zhou
Heavenly Mandate
nepotism & non-nepotism v/v fiefs
Asiatic Feudalism, freedom?
Mongol Invaders
Zhou Dynasty (1122-221 BCE)
Eastern Zhou (770-221 BCE)
Civil jobs by merit not birth
social mobility to smart, ed key
craftsmen, ironworkers, weapons, ag surplus
Dams, “Not-So-Great Wall”
Grand Canal for wheat & rice
Silk Road, currency, merchants low
character writing/record system, Mandarin
jade art, books, songs, poems, tech & tech trade
Age of Confucius & Lao Tzu (tao)
Indiv Duty v. group v. Legalism v. Daoism
Era of Warring States, 475-221BCE, 120k
Qin overthrow Zhou in 221 BC
infra, palace, Great Wall
"ruin 1 gen for salvation of hundreds"
lang, coins, measures, axels
scholars blast oppressive gment, jail+
ban/burn books, science > humanities, Confucianism survived
First Emperor dies 210, tomb, terra cottas
high taxes, deadly labor, no noble power
son Ying Fu Su & will, suicide, next weak
inner battle for rule, door opened and dirty work done for Han Dynasty
Shi Huangdi “First Emperor”
"history of China starts with me"
military, tech
central/absolute, legalists
36 states = 1, nepotism,
120k nobles capital
Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)
Han Dynasty(206 BCE-220 CE)
206 BC -220 AD
psnt starts, Liu Bang
Civil Service tests
college, ed, social mobility
Silk Road, Spice Road
105 AD paper, Cai Lun
dictionary & encyclopedia
wheels, cartography
great expansion, but heavy taxes
warlord abuse/greed,
brd invaders
weak ldrs/army no fight both
Period of Three Kingdoms
Mongolians in, assimilate
Tang Dynasty (618-907)
Yellow River flood
Tibet to Korea
World #1
“3 Ways” Confucianism #1
Civil service & exam
Code of Moral Values
Empress Wu (660-706 CE)
Confucius out, Buddha in
Silk Road + Ships,
High Quality Goods
Backlash v. Buddhism
Central Gment
w/o Central Religion
Era of Disunity

“Wu Tang”
Full transcript