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Learning English is Fun!

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Marta Aparicio

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of Learning English is Fun!

Likes/Dislikes
Lesson 1: Greetings, Introductions, Good-byes, Likes, Dislikes, Indifference
Expressing
Indifference
Greetings
Hello
Hi
Good morning
Good afternoon
Good evening
Good night
Introductions
(name), I don't think you've met (name).
I don't think you know (name)
May I introduce you to (name)
(name), do you know (name)?
(name), I'd like you to meet (name)
PRACTICE
Answer the following questions after listening to the conversation between Marco and Kyra.
1.How old is Marco?
2.How old is Kyra?
3.Where is Marco from?
4.Where is Kyra from?
3.0min
Introduce yourself
Good-byes
It was nice meeting you.
It was nice to see you.
Have a good day.
Goodnight!
Goodbye!
Bye!
Catch you later!
Similar phrases for expressing likes/dislikes:
Like --> love, enjoy, keen on, fond of, enjoy
Don't Like --> fond of, hate, dislike, can't bear, can't stand
Dialogue:
David is at home. His girlfriend comes in...Notice how they express their likes and dislikes

David: Hello, darling. Do you want to watch a film tonight?
Girlfriend: Oh, no thanks, I don't really feel like watching a film tonight. How about going out instead.
David: OK. Do you feel like going to the theater?
Girlfriend: Oh, no. I hate it. Do you like eating at the new Chinese restaurant?
David: I don't mind. The Chinese cuisine is alright.
Girlfriend: Well I really love it. Let's go.
Formal or informal:
(Oh,) really?
Is it/he (really)?
Are you/ they (really)?
Did you/ it (really)?
Is that so? – formal, semi-formal
I’m afraid… - semi-formal, informal
Sorry, but…- semi-formal, informal
Only use with friends/family
It doesn’t matter (to me).
What does it matter?
So what?
Who cares?
I don’t (really) care (when/ where/ who, etc).
I couldn’t care less. Very strong, possibly rude
I don’t give a damn - Very strong, possibly rude
I like to + verb / I like verb+ing / I like + noun

I don't like to + verb / I don't like verb+ing / I don't like + noun
Card Game
Look at each card and introduce each person on the cards. Tell me: their name, their age, their ethnicity, where they are from, what they like and dislike.
Parts
of
Speech

Nouns
Pronouns
Adjectives
Adverbs
Conjunctions
Verbs
Prepositions
Interjections
Are words which show action or being
Examples:
Go, jog, walk, learn, speak, move
Are words which name persons, places, things, or ideas
Examples:
Table, dog, cup, flower, candy, happiness, house, online
Are words which take the place of nouns or other pronouns
Examples:
I, he, she, it, they, him, we, none
Are words which modify a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words.
Examples:
Pretty, old, nice, blue, dark, large
Are words which modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause.
Examples:
Not, almost, too, very, always, quickly, today, finally, unfortunately
Are words which indicate time, place or position
Examples:
down, like, up, before, upon, around, beside, over
Are words which join/hook words phrases or sentences
Examples:
and, but, for, yet, or, nor, since, if, unless
Are words which express emotion
Basic English
When to use
'any' or 'some'
Use "some" in positive sentences. We use some for both countable and uncountable nouns
.
Example:
I have some friends.
Use "any" in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns.
Example:
Do you have any cheese? - He doesn't have any friends in Chicago.
Use "some" in questions when offering or requesting something that is there.
Example:
Would you like some bread? (offer) - Could I have some water? (request)
Use "any" in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns.
Example:
Do you have any cheese? - He doesn't have any friends in Chicago.
Use "some" words - somebody, someone, somewhere and something - in positive sentences.
Example:
He lives somewhere near here.
Use "any" words - anybody, anyone, anywhere and anything - in negative sentences or questions.
Example:
Do you know anything about that boy? - She doesn't have anywhere to go.
In / On / To / At
For Place
IN
Use 'in' with spaces:
in a room / in a building
in a garden / in a park
Use 'in' with bodies of water:
in the water
in the sea
in a river
Use 'in' with lines:
in a row / in a line
in a queue
AT
Use 'at' with places:
at the bus-stop
at the door
at the cinema
at the end of the street
ON
Use 'on' with surfaces:
on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor
on the table
Use 'on' with small islands:
I stayed on Maui.
Use 'on' with directions:
on the left
on the right
straight on
TO
Use 'to' with movement from one place to another:
I went to school.
Did you go to work?
Let's go to the shopping mall.
DO NOT Use 'to' with 'home'
Articles -
The / A / An
a = indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of the same objects) with consonants
She has a dog.
I work in a factory.
an = indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of the same objects) with vowels (a,e,i,o,u)
Can I have an apple?
She is an English teacher.
the = definite article (a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know)
The car over there is fast.
The teacher is very good, isn't he?
DO NOT
use an article with countries, states, counties or provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a collection of states such as "The United States".
He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier.
They live in northern British Columbia.
Use
an article with bodies of water, oceans and seas -

My country borders on the Pacific Ocean
DO NOT
use an article when you are speaking about things in general
I like Russian tea.
She likes reading books.
DO NOT
use an article when you are speaking about meals, places, and transport
He has breakfast at home.
I go to college.
He comes to work by taxi.
Uses of
'Like'

'Like' can be used as a verb or as a preposition. There are a number of common questions with 'like' that are easy to confuse.
What's he like? - 'What … like?' is used to ask about a person's or object's character and is general in nature.
What does he like? - This use of the verb 'like' is for general preferences. 'Like' as a verb is generally followed by the 'ing' form of the verb (I like playing tennis).
What does she look like? - 'Like' is used as a preposition to express physical appearance. In this case, 'like' can also mean 'similar to' if you are making a comparison to other people.
What would you like to drink? - Another common use of 'like' is in 'would like' to express wishes. Note that 'would like' is followed by the infinite form of the verb NOT the '-ing' form.
Prepositions
of Time -
In / At / On
IN
Use 'in' months and years and periods of time:
in January
in 1978
in the twenties
Use 'in' a period of time in the future:
in a few weeks
in a couple of days
AT
Use 'at' with precise time:
at six o'clock
at 10.30
at two p.m.
ON
Use 'on' with days of the week:
on Monday
on Fridays
Use 'on' with specific calendar days:
on Christmas day
on October 22nd
IMPORTANT NOTE:
in the morning / afternoon / evening - at night
We say in the morning, afternoon or evening BUT we say 'at night'
Modal Form
Basics
(Should,
can, may)
Giving Advice with Should
'Should' is used when asking for or giving advice. It is also used when asking for suggestions.
Examples:
I think you should see a doctor.
What type of job should I get?
Expressing Ability with Can
'Can' is used to speak abilities.
Examples:
He can speak Japanese.
Can you play golf?
Asking for Permission with May
'May' is used to ask for permission.
Examples
May I help you?
May I visit you this afternoon?
Countable and Uncountable Expressions with Nouns
Uncountable
Use the singular form of the verb with uncountable nouns. Use both 'some' and any' with uncountable nouns when speaking about specific objects.
Examples
Do you have any butter?
There is some juice in the bottle.
If you are speaking in general, do not use a modifier.
Examples
Do you drink coca cola?
He doesn't eat meat.
Countable
Use the plural form of the verb with countable nouns. Use both 'some' and 'any' with countable nouns when speaking about specific objects.
Examples:
There are some magazines on the table.
Has he got any friends?
If you are speaking in general, use the plural form of the noun.
Examples:
They love books by Hemingway.
She doesn't eat apples.
Expressions for Use with Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Use the following expressions with uncountable nouns.
most
much, lots of, a lot of
some
a little, little
Examples
:
There is lots of interest in the project.
She's got some money left in the bank.
There's little time to finish.
Use the following expressions with countable nouns.
many, lots of, a lot of
several
some
not many, only a few, few
Examples:
There are a lot of pictures on the wall.
We have several friends in Chicago.
She bought some envelopes this afternoon.
There are only a few people in the restaurant.
Comparative Forms
We use the comparative and superlative form to compare and contrast different objects in English.
Use the comparative form to show the difference between two objects.
Example:
New York is more exciting than Seattle.
Use the superlative form when speaking about three or more objects to show which object is 'the most' of something.
Example:
New York is the most exciting city in the USA.
One Syllable Adjectives
add '-er' to end of the adjective (Note: double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel) remove the 'y' from the adjective and add 'ier'
Example:

cheap - cheaper / hot - hotter / high - higher
Example Sentences
Yesterday was hotter than today.
This book is cheaper than that book.
Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in '-y'
Example:

happy - happier / funny - funnier
Example Sentences
I am happier than you.
That joke was funnier than his joke.
Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives
place 'more' before the adjective
Example:

interesting - more interesting / difficult - more difficult
Example Sentences
London is more expensive than Madrid.
This test is more difficult than the last test.
IMPORTANT EXCEPTIONS
There are some important exceptions to these rules. Here are two of the most important exceptions:
good
good - adjective
better - comparative
Example Sentences
This book is better than that one.
I am better at tennis than my sister.
bad
bad - adjective
worse - comparative
Example Sentences
His French is worse than mine.
His singing is worse than Tom's.
Time
Expressions
and Tenses
Time expressions are used to indicate the time at / during which an action took place. Common time expressions include:
Present forms:
everyday, on Fridays, at the moment, now,
as well as adverbs of frequency such as
always, usually, sometimes (for present habits and routines).
Days of the weeks followed by 's' such as
Mondays, Tuesdays, etc.
Examples
He sometimes finishes work early.
Marjorie is listening to the radio at the moment.
Peter goes jogging on Saturdays.
Past forms:
when I was ..., last week, day, year, etc., yesterday, ago (two weeks ago, three years ago, four months ago, etc.)
Examples
He visited his friends last week.
I didn't see you two days ago.
Jane flew to Boston yesterday.
Future forms:
next week, year, etc., tomorrow, by (the end of the week, Thursday, next year, etc.)
in X time
(in two weeks time, in four months time, etc.)
Examples
I'm going to attend a conference next week.
It won't snow tomorrow.
They're going to visit New York in two weeks
Perfect forms:
since, yet, already, just, for
Examples
Michael has worked here since 1998.
Have you finished reading the paper yet?
He's just gone to the bank.
Present perfect tense
describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present. This tense is formed by using
has/have
with the past participle of the verb. Most
past participles
end in
-ed
. Irregular verbs have
special past participles
that must be memorized.
Example:
The researchers
have traveled
to many countries in order to collect more significant data.
Meaning:
At an indefinite time
Example:
Women
have voted
in presidential elections since 1921.
Meaning:
Continues in the present
Where does it fall in the timeline?
Present Perfect for Past to Present States and Actions
Present Perfect to express recent events
Present perfect for unspecified events
Past perfect tense
describes an action that took place in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using
had
with the
past participle
of the verb.
Example:

By the time the troops arrived, the war
had ended
.
Where does it fall in the timeline?
Past perfect
Future perfect tense
describes an action that will occur in the future before some other action. This tense is formed by using
will have
with the
past participle
of the verb.
Example:
By the time the troops arrive, the combat group
will have spent
several weeks waiting.
Where does it fall in the timeline?
Future Perfect
Present Perfect to express recent events
How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 - Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
Examples:
I have been to France.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN FRANCE. MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, OR SEVERAL TIMES.
I have been to France three times.
YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.
I have never been to France.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE.
TOPIC 2 - Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
Examples:
You have grown since the last time I saw you.
The government has become more interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
TOPIC 3 - Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Examples:
Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.
TOPIC 4 - An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
Examples:
James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn't stopped.
TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.
Examples:
The army has attacked that city five times.
I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.
English Pronouns
Pronouns
are small words that take the place of a noun. We can use a pronoun instead of a noun. Pronouns are words like:
he, you, ours, themselves, some, each
...
If we didn't have pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. We would have to say things like:
Do you like the president? I don't like the president. The president is too arrogant.
With pronouns, we can say:
Do you like the president? I don't like him. He is too arrogant.
Personal
Pronouns
Personal pronouns represent specific people or things. We use them depending on:
number: singular (eg:
I
) or plural (eg:
we
)
person: 1st person (eg:
I
)
, 2nd person (eg:
you
) or 3rd person (eg:
he
)
gender: male (eg:
he
), female (eg:
she
) or neuter (eg:
it
)
case: subject (eg:
we
) or object (eg:
us
)
For a single person, sometimes we don't know whether to use
he
or
she
. There are several solutions to this:
If a teacher needs help,
he or she
should see the principal.
If teachers need help,
they
should see the principal.
We often use
it
to introduce a remark:
It is nice to have a holiday sometimes.
It's difficult to find a job.
Is it normal to see them together?

We also often use it to talk about the weather, temperature, time and distance:
It's raining.
Is it nine o'clock yet?
It's 50 kilometers from here to Cambridge.
Examples
(in each case, the first example shows a subject pronoun, the second an object pronoun):
I like coffee.
John helped me.
Do you like coffee?
John loves you.
He runs fast.
Did Ram beat him?
Possessive
Pronouns
We use
possessive pronouns
to refer to a specific person/people or thing/things (the "antecedent") belonging to a person/people (and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals or thing/things).
We use possessive pronouns depending on:
number: singular (eg:
mine
) or plural (eg:
ours
)
person: 1st person (eg:
mine
), 2nd person (eg:
yours)
or 3rd person (eg:
his
)
gender: male
(his
), female (
hers)
Below are the
possessive pronouns,
followed by some example sentences. Notice that each possessive pronoun can:
be
subject
or
object
refer to a
singular
or
plural
antecedent
Each couple's books are colour-coded.
Yours
are red. (subject = Your books)
I don't like this family's garden but I like
yours
. (subject = your garden)
These aren't John and Mary's children.
Theirs
have black hair. (subject = Their children)
John and Mary don't like your car. Do you like
theirs
? (object = their car)
Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrate (verb): to show; to indicate; to point to

A demonstrative pronoun
represents a thing or things:
near in distance or time (
this, these
)
far in distance or time (
that, those
)
Here are some examples with demonstrative pronouns, followed by an illustration:
This is heavier than that.
These are bigger than those.
Interrogative
Pronouns
We use
interrogative pronouns
to
ask questions
. The interrogative pronoun represents the thing that we don't know (what we are asking the question about).

There are four main interrogative pronouns:
who, whom, what, which
Look at these example questions. In the sample answers, the noun phrase that the interrogative pronoun represents is shown in
bold
.
Notice that the
possessive pronoun

whose
can also be an interrogative pronoun (an interrogative possessive pronoun).
Note that we sometimes use the suffix "-ever" to make compounds from some of these pronouns (mainly
whoever, whatever, whichever
). When we add "-ever", we use it for emphasis, often to show confusion or surprise. Look at these examples:
Whoever would want to do such a nasty thing?
Whatever did he say to make her cry like that?
The
y're all fantastic! Whichever will you choose?
Reflexive
Pronouns
Reflexive
(adj.) [grammar]: reflecting back on the subject, like a mirror
We use a
reflexive pronoun
when we want to refer back to the subject of the sentence or clause. Reflexive pronouns end in "
-self
" (singular) or "
-selves
" (plural).
There are eight reflexive pronouns:
Look at these examples:
Reciprocal Pronouns
Reciprocal
(adj.): given or done in return; [grammar] expressing mutual action
We use
reciprocal pronouns
when each of two or more subjects is acting in the same way towards the other.
Ex:
A is talking to B, and B is talking to A. So we say:
A and B are talking to each other
.
The action is "reciprocated".
John talks to Mary and Mary talks to John. I give you a present and you give me a present. The dog bites the cat and the cat bites the dog.
There are only two reciprocal pronouns, and they are both two words:
each other
one another
When we use these reciprocal pronouns:
there must be
two or more
people, things or groups involved (so we cannot use reciprocal pronouns with I, you [singular], he/she/it), and
they must be
doing the same thing
Look at these examples:
John and Mary love
each other.
Peter and David hate
each other.
The ten prisoners were all blaming
one another.
Both teams played hard against
each other
An indefinite pronoun
does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and "not definite". Some typical indefinite pronouns are:
all, another, any, anybody/anyone, anything, each, everybody/everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody/someone
Note that many indefinite pronouns also function as other parts of speech. Look at "another" in the following sentences:
He has one job in the day and
another
at night. (pronoun)
I'd like
another
drink, please. (adjective)
Indefinite
Pronouns
Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. However, some of them can be singular in one context and plural in another. The most common indefinite pronouns are listed below, with examples, as singular, plural or singular/plural.

Notice that a singular
pronoun
takes a singular
verb
AND that any personal pronoun should also
agree
(in number and gender). Look at these examples:
Each
of the players
has
a doctor.
I met two girls.
One

has
given me
her
phone number.

Similarly,
plural pronouns
need plural agreement:
Many

have
expressed
their
views.
Relative
Pronouns
A relative pronoun
is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies. Here is an example:
The person
who
phoned me last night is my teacher.
In the above example, "who":
relates to "person", which it modifies
introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night"

There are five relative pronouns:
who, whom, whose, which, that
Who
(subject) and
whom
(object) are generally only for people.
Whose
is for possession.
Which
is for things. In non-defining relative clauses,
that
is used for things. In defining relative clauses (clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra information)
that
can be used for things and people

Relative pronouns can refer to singular or plural, and there is no difference between male and female.
ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION
TONGUE TWISTERS!

Sea Shells by the Sea Shore
She sells sea shells by the seashore.
The shells she sells are surely seashells.
So if she sells shells on the seashore,
I'm sure she sells seashore shells.
Peter Piper
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled peppers?
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
When speaking English, the
final /s/
ending in third person can have.
Three different sounds:
a)
/s/ as in sings;
b)
/z/ as in tells; and
c)
as an added/separate syllable, /iz/ as in watches
/s/ sound

Rule 1:
When the last sound in the base word ends in a voiceless sound. Use the voiceless ending /s/

Placement-
the tip of the tongue is close to the gum behind the top teeth.
Manner-
air flows between the tongue and the gum.
Voice-
/s/ is a voiceless sound (no vibration)
Examples-
sings, tastes. makes (hint: sound of snake; ssss)
Examples:

/s/
eats
sweeps
cooks
cuts
types
bakes
/z/ sound
Rule 2:

When the last sound in the base word ends in a voiced (vibrated) sound. Use the voiced ending /z/
Placement-
the tip of the tongue is close to the gum behind the top teeth.
Manner-
air flows between the tongue and the gum.
Voice-
/z/ is voiced (place hand on throat to feel the vibration)
Examples-
saves, lives, listens (hint: sound of a bee; zzzz)
Example:
/Z/
Reads
wears
drives
cleans
schedules
plays
/iz/ sound
Placement and Manner
- same as the /z/ sound with a short /i/ as in is:
pronounced as a separate syllable /iz/
Voice-
/iz/ is voiced
Examples- wishes. watches. buzzes
Example:
/iz/

washes
uses
judges
fixes
teaches
replaces
We pronounce
/ t /
after voiceless sounds: / p /, / k /, / s /, / f / and voiceless / th / sound
We pronounce
/ d /
after voiced sounds: / b / , / g /, / v /, / z/ , / m/ , /n /, / l /, / r / , voiced / th / sound and all vowels.
We pronounce
/ id /
after / d / and / t / sounds.
/t/ /d/ & /id/ Sounds
/t/ Sound
think bathroom teeth

How to Make the Sound?
Place the tip of your tongue between your upper and lower teeth. Don't put it between your lips. Make the sound by forcing air through the opening between your teeth and tongue. Don't vibrate your vocal cords.

Consonant Sound Pair (th) Rules:
Voiceless
: // thirty
Voiced:
/ð/ that

Voiceless: //
Nouns, adjectives and verbs
Ex: theatre, thread, Thursday, third, thirty, thousand, thick, think
and thanks.

Voiced: /ð/
Pronouns, articles and prepositions (function words)
Ex: the, this, that these, they and them.
End of words

Voiceless: //
Nouns or adjectives
Ex: bath, breath, cloth, teeth
Ordinal numbers: fourth -> ninth

Voiced: /ð/
Verbs ending in th+e
Ex: to bathe, to breathe, to clothe and to teethe.
CH Sound
The letter combination ch has three distinct sounds:
1. The most usual is the way it is pronounced in words like:
chair, check, chicken, chop, chuckle, much, rich, such
2. However, in words taken into English from Greek ch- sounds like k:
character chemist, chorus, etc., ache, echo, school
3. The third group, drawn from French, if written as it sounds, would be a combination of S and H as in machine (ma-sheen). In words taken into
English from French, ch- sounds like sh:
chef, chauffeur, chaperone, etc., machine, moustache, parachute
4. The letter C even without the H can sound either like a K or a S. It sounds like an S before E or I so you have:
cat (kat) but city (sit-ee).
PH
sounds like F
P and h combined as ph works just like f does. This set of exercises draws attention to words with ph:
1.At the start of words. Example: phone, Philip
2.In the middle of words.
Example: nephew

3.At the end of words.
Example: autograph, geography
WH questions
ask for information.
There are 6 different WH question words:
QUESTIONS?
DO/DOES + SUBJECT + VERB
DO/DOES Questions
Questions with
verbs
in the simple present use the
auxiliary verb “DO”.
Structure
Do/Does + Subject + Base Verb
Examples:
Do you like pizza?
Does she play baseball?
Answers
The answers to do/does questions are always "yes" or "no". This is why they are Yes/No Questions.
Question: Do you like chocolate?
Answer: Yes I do.
No I do not.
Question: Does she have a brother?
Answer: Yes she does.
No she does not.
NEGATIVES
Negative sentences in simple present use do or does.
Structure
Subject + Do/Does + Not + Verb
Examples:
I do not like hockey
She does not live in Brazil.
Contractions
Do not = Don't
Does not = Doesn'tE
xamples:T
hey don't have a dog.
He doesn't want a drink.
VERB STRUCTURE
The verbs after "do" and "does" are always in the base form.
Examples:
She plays hockey.
She does not play hockey.
The subject of the sentence only changes the "do" or the "does". The verb is always a base verb.
Do they live in New York?
He does not have a brother.
They do not have a brother.
Yes/No questions
are basic questions in English. They are called Yes/No questions because the answer is "yes" or "no".
Example:
Do you like pizza?

Yes I do.
•No I don't.
Y
es/No Questions use 2 forms:
1. Be
2. Do/Does
Verb to Be
Structure
BE + SUBJECT + Adjective/Noun
STRUCTURE
WH questions in simple present use “do” or “be”:W
H Questions with "do"
WH + DO/DOES + SUBJECT + VERB
E
xamples:


Where do you work?
•Where does she live?
•When do you wake up?
W
H Questions with "be"
WH + BE + SUBJECT
E
xamples:


Where are you from?
•Who is that man?
•When is your class?
WH Questions are similar to YES/NO questions except they have WH words at the start.
Examples:

Are you from Canada?
•Where are you from?
H
ere are some example questions and answers:

Where are you from?
•I am from Japan.
•What is your name?
•My name is Jacob.

When do you wake up?
•I wake up at 7:30 am.
Rather and Prefer
are words used to show a choice from different options.
For example:
•Would you rather eat pizza or pasta?
•I would rather eat pizza.
•Would you prefer to eat pizza or pasta?
•I would
prefer to eat pizza.
STRUCTURE
The structure of these sentences are the same except for one small difference:
Would Rather is followed by a base verb and Would Prefer is followed by an infinitive.
Subject + Would + Rather + Base Verb
•I would rather live in a warm country.
•I would rather go to a different restaurant
Subject + Would + Prefer + To + Verb
•I would prefer to live in a warm country.
•She would prefer to meet on Monday.
Not comes before the verb with both rather and prefer.
•I would rather not go to work today.
•I would prefer not to play a game.
Full transcript