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Neuroscience: Male vs Female Brain Final

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Jeffrey Truong

on 8 March 2012

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Transcript of Neuroscience: Male vs Female Brain Final

Hartelijk dank voor je aandacht.

College over Kalat H4.3,
door Dr. Ilja Sligte

Technische details MRI en EEG geen tentamenstof!

Presentatie gemaakt met Prezi.com. Corpus Callosum Chemical Nature
&
Neuronal Connections Limitations Future Directions Emotion References Limbic System Size & Structure Straight Gyrus Amygdala Male medial amygdala nuclei is larger Left amygdala is more activated in females Right amygdala is more activated in males Female amygdala neurons are smaller, more numerous and densely packed Females have increased capacity of communication between the right and left amygdala Post-mortem Analysis Dynamic Nature of the Brain Post-mortem material is not readily available
Time-consuming autopsy studies
Variation in the timing of measurements, and in the interval between death and fixation
Conflict between many post-mortem and in vivo reports of regional brain differences Psychological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia occur at different rates in men and women. Sex-specific pathways and mechanisms for these mental disorders can be revealed. Knowledge gained through differences between female and male brains may also enable early diagnosis, precise treatment and management for mental disorders Future studies are clearly essential to evaluate the relationship between gender-specific structural differences and their functional significance in the human brain More of the sophisticated techniques such as MRI need to be developed Male is 16% larger than females Learning and Memory
Females have a Larger hippocampus and cingulate cortex
Females and Males respond differently to stress
Differences in usage during tasks like virtual reality maze Hippocampus Limbic System Jeffrey Truong Jimmy Yu Mohammad Jaafar Mustafa Agha Pam Van Seher Aslaner Layal Hanna Sunita Jha Short-term experiences of specific sensory, motor or cognitive stimulation (e.g., juggling, memory training) cause changes in the brain structure of healthy adults. The limbic system is a group of structures including the limbic lobe (the hippocampus and cortical areas surrounding the brain stem) and Papez circuit (emotion system)
Limbic system activity is involved in setting emotional tone
Females have a larger deep limbic system which is hardwired for empathy
The male limbic system is hardwired for systematizing. Differences Between the Male and Female Brain How on is your Amygdala? Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex Right cortical dominance
Consequently, males are better at:
Spatial tasks requiring the individual to imagine rotating an object or visually it in some way
Mathematical reasoning
Navigating through a route
Target-directed motor skills Exhibit left cortical dominance
Consequently, females are better at:
identifying matching items
superior verbal fluency
such as learning languages more easily, speaking earlier and more quickly and repeating tongue twisters more fluently Males Females Straight gyrus (SG) is involved with social cognition and interpersonal judgement
In adult females, the SG is approximately 10% larger than males
However, during adolescent, males SG is larger than females but a smaller SG correlated with femininity
Size of SG related to the degree of femininity of the individual Allows for the communications between the right and left hemispheres
The larger the corpus callosum, the more connections between the hemispheres Variety of animal species can be used to study the sexual dimorphisms in the human brain. Can the findings from animal studies be generalised to humans?
Sex-related neuroanatomical differences can also be studied in humans
Ethical reasons prevent the experimental manipulations
What could these differences mean in terms of functional activity? Ethics and Animal Study BA 39 & 40 BA 44 & 45 Although males have a larger cerebrum it is ambigiuous whether it positively correlates to higher IQ turned Betty Wong Seulki Koo How BIG is your straight gyrus? Male brain is 10-12% larger than that of females
in both weight and volume Male brain is 1260 cm 3 Female brain is 1130 cm Hypothalamus Control centre for homeostasis and sexual behaviour
Sexual behaviour regulation is believed to be the result of the dimorphic nucleus within the pre-optic area
SDN 2.2 times larger in males
Dependent on amount of ciruclating hormones Some studies suggest that males achieve 3-4 IQ points higher than females Males have 6.5 times more grey matter dedicated to intelligence than females Females have 10 times more white matter dedicated to intelligence than males All mammalian embryos have the potential to develop either both male and female forms.
So how do we become male and female?
Y chromosome or SRY will code the TDF protein
Rat experimentation used due to critical period for sexual dimorphisms
Rat experimentation used due to critical period for sexual dimorphisms
Sex steroids alter brain areas during development including reproduction, and emotional responses Hormones Neurotransmitters Dopamine - Women have higher Flurodopa uptake
Cortical asymmetries showed sex specific correlations with stress
Serotonin - Men show on average 52% higher seretonin 3 Hypothalamus Medial Preoptic Area INAH3 Third Ventricle Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus is differently shaped in males and females Females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum
Females are more efficient at expressing their emotions than males
One side of the brain is able to compensate for damage to the other Anatomical studies of the brain is limited to structural studies
Males have 9-12% larger brain size whereas females have more dendritic connections between cells
Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) is the speed at which impulses travels along the nerves
Males have 4% faster reaction time than Females Neuronal Connections Aaron D., Boes et al, ‘Social Function in Boys with Cleft Lip and Palate: Relationship to Ventral Frontal Cortex Morphology’, Behav Brain Res. 2007; 181(2): 224–231
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