Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Neuroscience: Male vs Female Brain Final

No description

Jeffrey Truong

on 8 March 2012

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Neuroscience: Male vs Female Brain Final

Hartelijk dank voor je aandacht.

College over Kalat H4.3,
door Dr. Ilja Sligte

Technische details MRI en EEG geen tentamenstof!

Presentatie gemaakt met Prezi.com. Corpus Callosum Chemical Nature
Neuronal Connections Limitations Future Directions Emotion References Limbic System Size & Structure Straight Gyrus Amygdala Male medial amygdala nuclei is larger Left amygdala is more activated in females Right amygdala is more activated in males Female amygdala neurons are smaller, more numerous and densely packed Females have increased capacity of communication between the right and left amygdala Post-mortem Analysis Dynamic Nature of the Brain Post-mortem material is not readily available
Time-consuming autopsy studies
Variation in the timing of measurements, and in the interval between death and fixation
Conflict between many post-mortem and in vivo reports of regional brain differences Psychological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia occur at different rates in men and women. Sex-specific pathways and mechanisms for these mental disorders can be revealed. Knowledge gained through differences between female and male brains may also enable early diagnosis, precise treatment and management for mental disorders Future studies are clearly essential to evaluate the relationship between gender-specific structural differences and their functional significance in the human brain More of the sophisticated techniques such as MRI need to be developed Male is 16% larger than females Learning and Memory
Females have a Larger hippocampus and cingulate cortex
Females and Males respond differently to stress
Differences in usage during tasks like virtual reality maze Hippocampus Limbic System Jeffrey Truong Jimmy Yu Mohammad Jaafar Mustafa Agha Pam Van Seher Aslaner Layal Hanna Sunita Jha Short-term experiences of specific sensory, motor or cognitive stimulation (e.g., juggling, memory training) cause changes in the brain structure of healthy adults. The limbic system is a group of structures including the limbic lobe (the hippocampus and cortical areas surrounding the brain stem) and Papez circuit (emotion system)
Limbic system activity is involved in setting emotional tone
Females have a larger deep limbic system which is hardwired for empathy
The male limbic system is hardwired for systematizing. Differences Between the Male and Female Brain How on is your Amygdala? Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex Right cortical dominance
Consequently, males are better at:
Spatial tasks requiring the individual to imagine rotating an object or visually it in some way
Mathematical reasoning
Navigating through a route
Target-directed motor skills Exhibit left cortical dominance
Consequently, females are better at:
identifying matching items
superior verbal fluency
such as learning languages more easily, speaking earlier and more quickly and repeating tongue twisters more fluently Males Females Straight gyrus (SG) is involved with social cognition and interpersonal judgement
In adult females, the SG is approximately 10% larger than males
However, during adolescent, males SG is larger than females but a smaller SG correlated with femininity
Size of SG related to the degree of femininity of the individual Allows for the communications between the right and left hemispheres
The larger the corpus callosum, the more connections between the hemispheres Variety of animal species can be used to study the sexual dimorphisms in the human brain. Can the findings from animal studies be generalised to humans?
Sex-related neuroanatomical differences can also be studied in humans
Ethical reasons prevent the experimental manipulations
What could these differences mean in terms of functional activity? Ethics and Animal Study BA 39 & 40 BA 44 & 45 Although males have a larger cerebrum it is ambigiuous whether it positively correlates to higher IQ turned Betty Wong Seulki Koo How BIG is your straight gyrus? Male brain is 10-12% larger than that of females
in both weight and volume Male brain is 1260 cm 3 Female brain is 1130 cm Hypothalamus Control centre for homeostasis and sexual behaviour
Sexual behaviour regulation is believed to be the result of the dimorphic nucleus within the pre-optic area
SDN 2.2 times larger in males
Dependent on amount of ciruclating hormones Some studies suggest that males achieve 3-4 IQ points higher than females Males have 6.5 times more grey matter dedicated to intelligence than females Females have 10 times more white matter dedicated to intelligence than males All mammalian embryos have the potential to develop either both male and female forms.
So how do we become male and female?
Y chromosome or SRY will code the TDF protein
Rat experimentation used due to critical period for sexual dimorphisms
Rat experimentation used due to critical period for sexual dimorphisms
Sex steroids alter brain areas during development including reproduction, and emotional responses Hormones Neurotransmitters Dopamine - Women have higher Flurodopa uptake
Cortical asymmetries showed sex specific correlations with stress
Serotonin - Men show on average 52% higher seretonin 3 Hypothalamus Medial Preoptic Area INAH3 Third Ventricle Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus is differently shaped in males and females Females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum
Females are more efficient at expressing their emotions than males
One side of the brain is able to compensate for damage to the other Anatomical studies of the brain is limited to structural studies
Males have 9-12% larger brain size whereas females have more dendritic connections between cells
Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) is the speed at which impulses travels along the nerves
Males have 4% faster reaction time than Females Neuronal Connections Aaron D., Boes et al, ‘Social Function in Boys with Cleft Lip and Palate: Relationship to Ventral Frontal Cortex Morphology’, Behav Brain Res. 2007; 181(2): 224–231
Aschoff J., Ceresa F., Halberg F., editors., 1974, Chronobiological Aspects of Endocrinology, FK SchattauerVerlag, Stuttgart

Ashburner J., Frackowiak R.S.J., Friston K.J., Good C.D., Henson R.N.A. & Johnsrude I., 2001, ‘Cerebral asymmetry and the effects of sex and handedness on brain structure: a voxel-based morphometric analysis of 465 normal adult human brains’, NeuroImage, vol.14, pp. 685-700.

Baron-Cohen, S. 2003, ‘The Essential Difference: men, women and the extreme male’, British Journal of Medicine, vol 327, pp 327-357

Bear M. F., Connors B.W. & Paradiso M. A., 2007, Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bell A. H., 2008, Butterflies be gone: a hands-on approach to sweat-proof public speaking call numberi [eBook], Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, Chicago

Benbow C.P., 1988, ‘Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability in intellectually talented preadolescents: their nature, effects, and possible causes’, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, vol. 11, pp. 169–182.

Berenbaum S.A., Korman K., Leveroni C., 1995, ‘Early hormones and sex differences in cognitive abilities’, Learning & Individual Differences, vol.7, pp. 303–321.

Bleecker M.L,. Bolla-Wilson K., Agnew J., Meyers D.A., 1988, ‘Age-related sex differences in verbal memory’, J of Clinical Psychology, vol. 44, pp. 403–411.

Bosinski H.A.G., Schroder I., Peter M., Arndt R., Wille R., Sippell W.G., 1997, ‘Anthropometrical measurements and androgen levels in males, females, and hormonally untreated female-to-male transsexuals’, Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 26, pp. 143–157.

Broverman D.M., Vogel W., Klaiber E.L., Majcher D., Shea D., Paul V., 1981, ‘Changes in cognitive task performance across the menstrual cycle’, J of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, vol. 95, pp. 646–654.

Burman D.D., Bitan T. & Booth J.R., 2008, ‘Sex differences in neural processing of language among children’, Neuropsychologia, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1349-1362

Cahill L., 2005, His Brain, Her Brain, Scientific American, Inc.

Campbell J.R., 1991, ‘The roots of gender inequity in technical areas’, J of Research in Science Teaching, vol. 28, pp. 251–264.

Carne R.P., Cook M.J., Litewka L. & Vogrin S., 2006, ‘Cerebral Cortex: An MRI-based study of volume and variance with age and sex’, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol.13, pp.60-72. Carter R., Aldridge S., Page M. & Parker S., 2009, The Brain Book, Dorling kindersely Limited, London.

Collingnon O.,Girard S., Gosselin F., Saint-Amour D., Lepore F. & Lassonde M, 2010 ‘Women process multisensory emotion expressions more efficiently than men’, Neuropsychologia, vol. 48, pp. 220-225

Cosgrove K. P., Mazure C. M., Staley J. K., 2007, ‘Evolving knowledge of sex differences in brain structure, function and Chemistry’, Biological Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 1, pp 847-855

Dabbs J. M., 1990, ‘Age and seasonal variation in serum testosterone concentration among men’, Chronobiology International, vol. 7, pp. 245–249.

Derntl B.,Windischberger C., Robinson S., Kryspin-Exner I,. Ruben C., Morse E., & Habel U, 2008, ‘Amygdala activity to fear and anger in healthy young males is associated with testosterone’, Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp 687-693

Double K.L, Halliday G.M, Harasty J, Kril J.J, McRitchie D.A., 1997, ‘Language-associated cortical regions are proportionally larger in the female brain’, Arch Neurol, vol. 57, no.2, pp. 171-176

Duff S.J., Hampson E., 2000, ‘A beneficial effect of estrogen on working memory in postmenopausal women taking hormone replacement therapy’, Hormones &Behavior, vol. 38, pp. 262–276.

Feingold A.,1988, ‘Cognitive gender differences are disappearing’, American Psychologist, vol. 43, pp. 95–103.

Fitch R.H., Bimonte H.A., 2002, Hormones, brain and behavior: Putative biological contributions to cognitive sex differences, In A McGillicuddy-DeLisi, R DeLisi, editors. Biology, Society and Behavior: The Development of Sex Differences in Cognition, Ablex, Westport Conn

Frederikse A. L., Aylward E., Barta P., Pearlyson G., 1999, ‘Sex Differences in the inferior parietal lobule’, Cerebral Cortex, vol. 9, no. 8, 896-901

Galea L. A. M., Kimura D., 1993, ‘Sex differences in route-learning’, Personality & Individual Differences, vol. 14, pp. 53–65.

Garcia-Falgueras, A. & Swaab D.F., 2008, ‘A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity’, Brain, vol. 13, pp. 3132-3146

Geary D. C., 1998, Male, Female: Evolution of Human sex differences, American Psychological Association Books, Washington D.C

Goldstein J. M., Seidman L. J., Horton N. J., et al., 2001, ‘Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by In vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging’, Cerebral Cortex, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 490-497. Gouchie C, Kimura D., 1991, ‘The relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive ability patterns’, Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 16, pp. 323–334.

Goy R.W., Bercovitch F.B., McBrair M.C., 1988, ‘Behavioral masculinization is independent of genital masculinization in prenatally androgenized female rhesus macaques’, Hormones &Behavior, vol. 22, pp. 552–571.

Goy R.W., McEwen B.S., 1980, Sexual Differentiation of the Brain, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass

Haier, R.J., Jung, R.E., Yeo, R.A., Head, K. &Alkire, M.T. 2005, ‘The neuroanatomy of general intelligence: sex matter’, Neuroimage, vol. 25, pp.. 320-327

Hamann, S. 2005, ‘Sex differences in the Responses of the Human Amygdala’, Neuroscientist, vol 11, no. 4, pp 288-293

Hamann, S., Herman, R.A., Nolan, C.L. &Wallen, K. 2004, ‘Men and women differ in amygdala response to visual sexual stimuli’, Nature Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 4, pp 411-416

Hampson E, Kimura D., 1988, ‘Reciprocal affects of hormonal fluctuations on human motor and perceptual-spatial skills’, Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 102, pp. 456–459.

Heyrman H., 2010, Male-Female Brain Differences, Dr. Hugo Heyrman; Motion of the Mind, viewed 08/04/11.

Hines, M. 2011, ‘Gender Development and the Human Brain’, Annual Review of Neuroscience, Article in review

Ho K. C., Roessmann U., Straumfjord J. V., Monroe G., 1980, ‘Analysis of brain weight, Adult Brain weight in relation to body height, weight and surface area’, Arch Pathology Lab Med, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 640-645

Hoffer A., Siedentopf C.M., Ischebeck A., Felber S. & Fleischhacker W.G., 2006, 'Gender differences in regional cerebral activity during the perception of emotion: A functional MRI study', 'Neuroimage', Vol. 32, pp. 854-862

Jackson D.N., & Rushton P.J., 2006, ‘Males have greater g: Sex differences in general mental ability from 100,000 17- to 18-years-olds on the Scholastic Assessment Test’, Intelligence, vol. 34, no.5, pp 479-486

Khalsa D. S. &Stauth C., 1997, Brain Longevity: The Breakthrough Medical Program that Improves Your Mind and Memory’, Warner Books.

Kimura D., Hampson E., 1991, Neural and hormonal mechanisms mediating sex differences in cognition, In PA Vernon, editor. Biological Approaches to the Study of Human Intelligence, Ablex Publishing Corp., New Jersey

Kimura D., 1992, Sex differences in the brain, Scientific American Kotter R., 2001, ‘Neuroscience databases: tools for exploring brain structure-function relationships’, The Royal Society, vol. 356, no. 1412, pg. 1-10

Kramer J.H., Delis D.C., Daniel M., 1988, ‘Sex differences in verbal learning’, J of Clinical Psychology, vol. 44, pp. 907–915.

Lenroot R. K., & Giedd J. N., 2010, ‘Sex Differences in the Adolescent Brain’, Elsevier, Brain and Cognition vol. 72, pp. 46-55.

Leonard C. M., Towler S., Welcome S., 2008, ‘Size Matters: Cerebreal volume influences sex differences in neuroanatomy’, Cerebral Cortex, vol. 18, no. 12, pp 2920-2931

LeVay S., 1991, ‘A difference in hypothalamic structure between homosexual and heterosexual men’, Science, vol. 253, pp. 1034-1037

Ludmer R., Dudai Y., and Rub N., 2011, ‘Uncovering Camouflage: Amygdala Activation Predicts Long-Term Memory of Induced Perceptual Insight’, Neuron, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 1002-1014

Neubauer A.C., Grabner R.H., Fink A. & Neuper C., 2005, 'Intelligence and neural efficiency: Further evidence of the influence of task content and sex on the brain–IQ relationship', Cognitive Brain Research, vol. 25, pp. 217-225

Phelps E. A., 2004, ‘Human emotion and memory: interactions of the amygdale and hippocampal complex’, Current Opioniong Neurobiology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 198-202

Rabinowicz T., Dean D. E., Petetot J. M., de Courten-Myers G. M., 1999, ‘Gender differences in the human cerebral cortex: more neurons in males; more processes in females’, Journal of Children Neurology, vol. 14, pp. 98-107.

Reed T.E., Vemon P. A., & Johnson A.M., 2004, ‘Sex differences in brain nerve conduction velocity in normal humans’, Neuropsychologia, vol. 42, no. 12, pp.1709-14

Rhawn J., 1992, ‘The Limbic System: Emotion, Laterality, and Unconscious Mind’, The Psychoanalytic Review, vol. 79, pp. 405-456.

Rhawn J., 2000, Neurosychiatry, Neuropsychology, Clinical Neuroscience, Second Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Roselli C.E., Larkin K., Resko J.A., Stellflug J.N. & Stormsback, F., 2003, ‘The Volume of A sexually Dimorphic Nucleus in the Ovine Medial Preoptic Area/Anterior Hypothalamus Varies with Sexual Partner Preference’, Endocrinology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 438-493

Rubin L.H., Haas L.G., Keshavan M.S., Sweeney J.A.& Maki M.P., 2007, 'Sex Difference in Cognitive Response to AntipsychoticTreatment in First Episode Schizophrenia’ Neuropsychopharamcology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 290-297

Sabbatini R. M. E., 2000, ‘Are there differences between the brains of males and females?’ Brain Mind Mag, October/December

Spratt D., 2007, Sex differences in the brain, BSN (British Society for Neuroendocrinology), Pambroke College, University of Cambridge, viewed 07/04/11.

Walsbury C. W., and McKay K., 1994, ‘Neutrophic Effects of Testosterone on the Medial Nucleus of the Amygdala in Adult Male Rats’, Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 57-69

Wood J. L., Heitmiller D., Andreasen N. C., Nopoulos P., 2008, ‘Morphology of the ventral frontal cortex: relationship to femininity and social cognition’, Cerebral Cortex, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 534-40.

Zaidi, Z.F. 2010, ‘Gender Differences in Human Brain: A Review’ The Open Anatomy Journal, vol. 2, pp. 37-55 Male Female
Full transcript