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The Indian Political System Constitutional Changes Policies in India From 1993-2013 Economic Policies Social Policies Anti-Defection Law Right to Education Historical Background 1980s Introduction India is one of the largest democracies of the world. Over the past so many years, we have witnessed continued changes in our constitutional framework due to repeated agreements or disagreements on various clauses. Being a diverse country, India has also seen debates of different regional groups too. There have been various laws, acts, bills and amendments etc which have been passed by the parliament. Here are some of the major constitutional changes from the History of India and its impacts on the Indian society- The Constitutional Act- 52nd amendment, 1985 is popularly known as Anti Defection Law.
It added a new 10th schedule to the constitution setting out certain provisions regarding vacation of seats and disqualification from membership of parliament and state legislations on ground of defection. A member would be disqualified if:
if he voluntarily relinquishes his membership of such political party or votes or abstains from voting in the house contrary to any direction of such party.
A nominated member of parliament or state legislature who is not a member of a political party at the time of his nomination and who has not become a member of any political party before the expiry of 6 months from the date on which he takes his seat
An independent Member of Parliament or state legislature will be disqualified if he joins any political party after his elections. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), which was passed by the Indian Parliament on 4 August 2009, describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution. India became one of 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the act came into force on 1 April 2010. . It requires all private schools to reserve 25% of seats to children from poor families (to be reimbursed by the state as part of the public-private partnership plan).
It also prohibits all unrecognized schools from practice, and makes provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the child or parent for admission. 
The Act also provides that no child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until the completion of elementary education. There is also a provision for special training of school drop-outs to bring them up to par with students of the same age. The Right to Information Act 2005 (RTI) is an Act of the Parliament of India "to provide for setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens." The Act applies to all States and Union Territories of India except the State Of Jammu And Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir has its own act called  Jammu And Kashmir Right to Information Act 2009. Right to Information Under the provisions of the Act, any citizen may request information from a "public authority" (a body of Government or "instrumentality of State") which is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days.
The Act also requires every public authority to computerize their records for wide dissemination and to pro-actively publish certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for information formally. Information disclosure in India was hitherto restricted by the Official Secrets Act and various other special laws, which the new RTI Act now relaxes. Domestic Policies The Domestic Policies of India refer to the economic and social reforms, the nature of the government, the needs of the people and the conditions of the nation on a whole.
Here we will be talking about :
The Economic Policies
The Social Policies The assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1984, and later of her son Rajiv Gandhi in 1991, crushed international investor confidence on the economy.
India started having balance of payments problems since 1985, and by the end of 1990, it was in a serious economic crisis. In 1991, the government liberalized its economic policies.
The current Prime Minister Mr. Manmohan Singh was instrumental in bringing about this change although India.
The License Raj came to an end. GDP doubled.
Foreign Direct Investment, contributed more to the GDP.
Foreign Exchange Reserves, which had plunged to zero, surged to 50 billion US dollars.
However the downside has been that since 1992 income inequality has deepened in India. The LPG reform and its impact The BJP continued with the Five- Year Plans.
The 8th Five Year Plan : 1992-1997.
The 9th Five Year Plan : 1997-2002.
India faced severe sanctions after the Pokhran nuclear tests. There were dire predictions of the collapse of the economy.
After 5 years, the sanctions were lifted and the economy grew satisfactorily.
The 10th Five Year Plan : 2002-2007
The fruits of liberalization reached their peak in 2007, when India recorded its highest GDP growth rate of 9%. The later reforms The 11th Five Year Plan.
Towards the end of 2011, the Government initiated the introduction of 51% Foreign Direct Investment in retail sector which was approved in December 2012.
The impact of these reforms may be gauged from the fact that total foreign investment in India has grown.
Indian cities have risen in prominence and economic importance, become centres of rising industries and destination for foreign investment and firms. India is the world’s largest liberal democracy. The more significant forms of social policy in the Indian context have included: agrarian reform; food procurement and distribution; education; employment creation through public works. The various areas of the social policies include :
The Land Reforms
Food Procurement and Distribution
Employment and Public Works
Education Various social policies: A few laws that have been enacted over the years.
Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act -1994.
The Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) – 1999.
Prevention of Money Laundering Act is Indian law passed in 2002.
The Right to Information Act 2005 (RTI).
The Jan Lokpal Bill.
Criminal Law ( Amendment) Ordinance,2013.
Women's Reservation Bill. A few Acts: Foreign Policies India played a significant role in multilateral institutions and particularly in UN peacekeeping operations
it emerged as a critical proponent of the nonaligned movement.
it also made a significant contribution toward the process of decolonization. Characteristics of India's foreign policies Thank You Contributors of this project: 121. Rhea Antony
122. Siddhanth Babu
123. Shyama Balachandran
124. Supratik Banerjee
125. Sachia Baptista

The situation in early years of independent India were full of disruptive events like  Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. The Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India from West Punjab, North-West Frontier of Punjab, Baluchistan, East Bengal and Sindh after the communal violence in Pakistan.
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India, that was drafted by a committee headed by B. R. Ambedkar, on November 26, 1949 and came into force on January 26,1950. India became a democratic republic and Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India.



India held its first constitutional elections in 1952. The National Congress Party won majority, and Jawaharlal Nehru was made Prime Minister & Dr. Rajendra Prasad was re-elected as President of India.

Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeded Jawaharlal Nehru after his demise as Prime Minister. 1947-1950 1950s & 1960s Then as a result of the elections nation saw the rise of Indira Gandhi after the death of Lal Bhadur Shastri. She put an end to the privy purse guarantee for former Indian royalty, and waged a major offensive against party hierarchy over the nationalization of India's banks. The Indian National Congress split in the year 1969.


Indira Gandhi and Congress returned to power winning huge majority in 1971.
Bangladesh was separated as a result of Bangladesh Liberation War. India signed a 20-year treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union. In 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test in Pokharan Rajasthan. Sikkim was formally declared as India's 21st state on April 26, 1975.
Indo-Pakistan War of 1971

The Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 was fought for the independence of East Pakistan into the nation of Bangladesh from Pakistan. 
Indira called for elections in 1977, and was defeated by Janata Party.
Morarji Desai became the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India.
Indira Gandhi and her Congress (I) party bounce back into power with a large majority in January, 1980. On October 31, 1984, the Prime Minister's own Sikh bodyguards killed her, and communal violence erupted in Delhi and parts ofPunjab
The Congress party chose Rajiv Gandhi, as the next Prime Minister. Rajiv Gandhi at 40 was the youngest political leader and Prime Minister ever.
In 1987 India acted as mediator in an agreement between the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE. Rajiv sent Indian Peace Keeping force to enforce the agreement and disarm the Tamil rebels.


On May 21, 1991, Rajiv Gandhi was killed in a bomb attack by LTTE when he was campaigning in Tamil Nadu on behalf of Congress (I). In the elections, Congress (I) won 244 parliamentary seats and put together an alliance, returning to power under the leadership of P.V. Narasimha Rao.
. India was rocked by communal violence between Hindus and Muslims following the Babri Mosque demolition by Hindu mobs in reply to Ram Janmabhoomi dispute in Ayodhya in 1992.  1970s 1990s With the fall of BJP-led coalition government in April 1999, elections were held in September. In May and June 1999, Kargil War was fought in Kashmir after India discovered an elaborate campaign of terrorist infiltration. Prime Minister Vajpayee inaugurated the bus service between India and Pakistan. Indian forces killed infiltrators. Terrorism has increased in India with bomb blasts in leading cities like Mumbai, New Delhi, Jaipur, Bangalore, Hyderabad has been very common over the years. PM Vajpayee 126. Aishwarya Bellam
127. Neha Betai
128. Akansha Bhatia
129. Natasha Bhide
130. Shimul Bijoor The government comprises three branches:

the executive,
the legislative and
the judiciary. The government of India and its different branches. Print money .
Make treaties and conduct foreign policy.
Provide an army and navy.
Establish post offices.
Issue licenses.
Conduct elections .
Establish local governments.
Ratify amendments to the Constitution.
Collect taxes.
Build roads.
Establish courts.
Make and enforce laws.
Charter banks and corporations.
Spend money for the general welfare.
Take private property for public purposes, with just compensation. Powers of the Government India's Nuclear Weapons Program 1989 marked a turning point in the strategic situation in South Asia because it was in this year that Pakistan, and in response India, began creating real nuclear arsenals by stockpiling complete, ready-to-assemble weapons.
The maturation of the Pakistani weapons program finally persuaded India to take the step of manufacturing an arsenal of weapons in a decision was made by Rajiv Gandhi on 18 March 1989
A new crisis involving India and Pakistan developed in the spring of 1990 over Muslim-majority Kashmir. In January 1990 the new government sent 150,000 troops to restore order and established military rule in Kashmir
On 13 March PM Bhutto traveled to Pakistani controlled Kashmir and promised a "thousand year war" However, despite the Pakistani provocation India exercised remarkable restraint and a large-scale war was effectively avoided.
In the aftermath of the 2001-2002 crisis India and Pakistan with some American prodding embarked upon a peace process. Features of the Nuclear Policy Of India Total opposition for development of nuclear weapons.
Ending the nuclear arms race.
Usage of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
Refusal to sign NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty).
Support for securing a non-nuclear world, in the years to come. As 2012 draws to a close, it’s imperative to assess India’s foreign policy performance, and look ahead to what we can expect in 2013.
Internationally, India has been an active participant in the creation of alternate financial instruments and institutions from emerging countries. India Resurgent? Important movements in the last year: Anti-corruption (2011, Anna Hazare)
Anti-rape (intrigued by Delhi incident) Failures in administration On December 6, 1992, Hindu Karsevaks destroyed the 16th-century Babri mosque in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India, in an attempt to reclaim the land known as Ram Janmabhoomi. Babri Masjid Incident Gujarat 1992. Mumbai 1992. Riots after the demolition
Inability of BJP to form a proper government In 1996, BJP was the single largest party with 161seats followed by Congress. BJP was invited to form the government and Atal Bihari Vajpayee formed the government only for 13 days, as it could not manage support. Deve Gowda I.K Gujral Condemnation of India from foreign affairs India was condemned from foreign politics but was also recognized as a nuclear power. Kargil War Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC). In mid 2000, thousands of women demonstrate in New Delhi in support of the government's proposed "reservations bill" which will guarantee women one-third of all parliamentary seats. Failure of the government to pass the women’s reservation bill The 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement were a series of demonstrations and protests across India intended to establish strong legislation and enforcement against endemic political corruption. Anti-Corruption Movement The goals of the anti-corruption movement were: Establishing strong and independent janlok pal anti-corruption legislation and enforcement (Not Completed Yet)
Publicising People to vote against Parties who are against Strong Lokpal Bill & consequently white wash Government in Vidhan Sabha Elections in 5 states in 2012 and Indian Elections 2014 (Not Yet Completed)
Establishing strong "Right to Reject Bill"(Not Completed Yet)
Repatriating and returning to India the $1.4 Trillion of Indian black money illegally sent abroad through corrupt activities and making it a national income; (Not Completed Yet)
Electoral and Judicial reform; (Not Completed Yet) Since 1993, there have been more than 100 scams. Scams India has been a victim of terrorism extensively in the past three decades. The Indian government and the Indian Intelligence are unable to stop/locate terrorist groups in India. It is estimated that there are as many as 800 terrorist cells operating in the country. Terrorism According to the telecom policy of India, when a licence is allotted to an operator, some start-up spectrum is bundled along with it.
In 2008, 122 new second generation (2G) Unified Access Service (UAS) licenses were given to telecom companies at the 2001 price and on a first-come-first-serve basis. As per the chargesheet filed by the Central Bureau of Investigation.
the 2G spectrum scam involved politicians and government officials in India illegally undercharging mobile telephony companies for frequency allocation licenses, which they would then use to create 2G subscriptions for cell phones. The shortfall between the money collected and the money that the law mandated to be collected is estimated to be 176,645 crore (US$32.15 billion).
In 2011, Time magazine listed the scam at number two on their “Top 10
Abuses of Power” list (just behind the Watergate scandal). The 2G spectrum scam Karnataka WAKF board land Scam The Karnataka Wakf Board Land Scam concerns the alleged misappropriation of 200,000 crore (US$36.4 billion) in Indian property funds, made public by a report submitted by the Karnataka State Minorities Commission in 2012.
27,000 acres of land controlled by the Karnataka Wakf Board had either been misappropriated or allocated illegally.
The Karnataka Wakf Board is a Muslim charitable trust that manages and oversees property that has typically been donated for the use of the poor. The report commissioned by Manippady alleges that the Karnataka Wakf Board had allowed almost 50% of its land to be misappropriated by politicians and board members, in collusion with the real estate mafia for afraction of its market value. Manippady has recommended that the government establish a committee to investigate corrupt activities on the Wakf Board and appoint a task forceto recover properties that have been illegally sold by the Wakf Board. Telgi Scam The Telgi stamp scam can be dubbed as the mother of all scams. Abdul Karim Lad Saab Telgi’s story is that of the rags to the riches. He struck gold when he plunged into printing and selling fake stamps. He was able to keep the law at bay by bribing the powers that pulled the strings. He penetrated the confines of Indian Government’s Nashik Security Press where millions of crores worth court stamp papers and printed in connivance with the top officials. This enabled him to sell in bulk to top companies and banks. The racket had come to light in 1995. It was the patience and perseverance of one man, the indefatigable Anna Hazare who filled a public interest petition in the high court. This brought
things into the open and exposed the role of police and politicians. Uttar Pradesh NRHM Scam Uttar Pradesh NRHM Scam is an alleged corruption scandal in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, in which top politicians and
bureaucrats are alleged to have siphoned off a massive sum estimated at 10,000 crore (US$1.82 billion) from the National Rural Health Mission,
a central government program meant to improve health care delivery in rural areas. Conclusion The present political scenario An issue hanging since a decade is the Babri Masjid : the Supreme Court passed a verdict to divide the land into three parts- 2 for Hindus and 1 for Muslims. What has happened? Electronic Voting Machines ("EVM") are being used in Indian General and State Elections to implement electronic voting in part from 1999 elections and in total since 2004 elections.
They reduce the time in both casting a vote and declaring the results compared to the old paper ballot system. The Indian government introduced the UID system. An Indian citizen can be verified by an Aadhar card based on biometric verification.
It is a proof of identity, nationality and is linked to the PDS. It looks better implementation of social welfare schemes and plugging leakage. What is happening ? An ambitious agenda awaits Parliamentarians with 25 bills scheduled for consideration and passing and ten new bills listed for introduction.
The Lokpal Bill was discussed for 6 hours 42 minutes in Lok Sabha before it was passed and the Rajya Sabha spent another 7 hours debating the Bill
A year later Anna Hazare and his new band of anti-corruption campaigners look set to have their cause handed to them on a platter, with disruptions dominating the first two days of Parliament Session. UPA’s trouble shooter Pranab Mukherjee’s election as the President of the Indian Republic
February 8: Three ministers of BJP government in Karnataka- Laxman V Savadi, CC Patil and J Krishna Palemar- were found watching porn clips in the state assembly. They subsequently tendered resignation March 22: India backed a UN resolution criticising its next-door neighbor Sri Lanka for allegedly violating civil rights during the civil war in which terror outfit Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam was rooted out. 
May 13: Parliament of India celebrated its 60th anniversary.
July 7: In a major blow to the image of already embattled UPA government led by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, world famous magazine Time dubbed him ‘Underachiever’ July 20: Assam violence erupts in Kokrajhar district and the areas in the districts in its vicinity. The violence mainly involved the two warring groups- Bangladeshi Muslims and Bodo tribes in which many lives were lost and lakhs of people were displaced. This further triggered incidents of violence against North-Eastern people in Western and Southern states of India leading to mass exodus of North-Eastern people from these areas November 17: Founder and chief of the Shiv Sena, Bal Thackeray passes away in Mumbai. His funeral at Chhatrapati Shivaji Stadium was joined by nearly two billion people
November 21: After nearly four years of trial Ajmal Kasab was hanged on account of the 2008 Mumbai terror strikes And many untold tragedies…. THE DELHI RAPE CASE India has a multi-party system with predominance of small regional parties.

All parties contesting elections have to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the Election Commission.

Political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India  (EC). Political Parties of India
The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)is a centrist national political party in India with socialist leanings.
The party claims to be inspired by the philosophy of B. R. Ambedkar.
The party's political symbol is an Elephant. Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) The Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the two major parties in the Indian political system.
It was established in 1980.
The party advocates Hindu nationalism and social conservatism, self-reliance as outlined by the Swadeshi movement. Bharatiya Janata Party
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