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Transcript of Leadership Theories
Supportive – socially oriented and allows participation and consultation "GREAT MEN"
are effective leaders in all sorts of situation
use both instrumental and supportive leadership behaviors “Charisma”
an inspirational quality possessed by some people • Charismatic leaders inspire others by obtaining emotional commitment from followers and by arousing strong feelings of loyalty and enthusiasm. • Charismatic leaders have strong conviction their own beliefs, high self-confidence, and a need for power. • Charismatic leaders perceive themselves as having supernatural purpose and destiny and that followers may idolize and worship them as spiritual figures or super humans. Charisma is more likely attributed to a leader who:
o Advocates a vision discrepant from the status quo
o Emerges during crisis
o Accurately assesses the situation
o Communicates self-confidence
o Uses personal power
o Makes self-sacrifices; and
o Uses unconventional strategies - Conger and Kanungo (1998) Trait Theory Energy
Teaching skill Leadership Traits Common Traits of a Leader Leaders need to be more intelligent in the group they lead
Leaders should possess the initiative, the ability to perceive and start courses of action not considered by others
The ability to think of new solutions to problems and ideas of new ways to be productive
Communication skills Emotional maturity with integrity. A leader should have a sense of purpose and direction, persistence, dependability, and objectivity. Mature leaders do what they say they will and are consistent in their actions.
Persuasion is often used by leaders to gain the consent of the followers
Leaders should be perceptive enough to identify their allies and from their opponents
Leaders participate in social activities and they should be sociable Common Traits of a Leader (cont'd) • Authoritarian leader – maintains strong control, does the planning, makes the decisions, and gives orders
• Autocratic leader – tent to be directive, critical, and punitive. They give themselves a higher status than the group members, which reduces open communication and trust, but good in the quality and quantity of the output
• Democratic leader – maintain less control; ask questions and make suggestions rather than issue orders; and get the group involved in planning, problem solving, and decision making.
• Laissez-faire – is very permissive, nondirective, passive, and inactive. Members may work independently and possibly at cross purposes because there is no planning coordination and little cooperation. • It is not clear which traits are most important, which traits are needed to acquire leadership, and which traits are needed to maintain it.
• Trait theory does not view personality as an integrated whole
• Does not deal with subordinates
• Avoids environmental influences and situational factors •Ohio State Leadership Studies proposed two (2) dimensions:
Behaving in a friendly and supportive way
Looking out for others’ welfare
Equalitarian point of view
Taking time to listen
Consulting others on important matters
Willing to accept suggestions
Doing personal favors
Suggestive new approaches
Coordination •Researches from the University of Michigan focused on identification of relationships among leader behaviors, group process, and group performance. They have found out three (3) types of leadership behaviors. Task-oriented – planning, scheduling, and coordinating activities
Relationship-oriented – friendly and considerate behaviors, trusting behaviors, confidence, appreciation, and recognition
Participative-oriented – group meetings that will invite the entire body to suggest, cooperate, and facilitate, and correct conflicts •John Maxwell (1999) discussed (21) twenty-one qualities of a leader should posses: Character
Teachability and vision Situational Theory • Suggests that multiple leadership styles is needed depending on the situation Factors that affect leadership styles:
Personality of the leaderPerformance requirements of both leader and followersAttitudes, needs, and expectations of both leader and followersDegree of interpersonal contact possibleTime pressuresPhysical environmentOrganizational structureNature of the organizationInfluence of the leader outside the groupState of the organization’s development
Leadership style will be effective or ineffective depending on the situation
Three (3) aspects of situation that structure the leader’s role
Involves the amount of confidence and loyalty the followers have with regard to their leader
Assessed by a group-atmosphere scale
Least preferred coworker (LPC) scale
High scores are relationship oriented and low scored are mostly task oriented
High is I is easy to define and measure a taskLow if it is difficult to define the task and to measure the progress towards completion
Used four (4) criteria to determine the degree of task structure
Goal clarity – extent to which a goal is understood by the followersExtent to which a decision can be verified – who is responsible to whatMultiplicity of the goal paths – number of solutionsSpecificity of solution – number of correct answers
Technical nursing focuses on procedures, may have a high task structure, but situations involving human relations and value judgments may have numerous solutions without specific correct answer and consequently have a low task structure Position power
Authority inherent in a position
Power to reward and to punish
To fire, to promote, adjust salaries
Breakdown of Most Effective Leader Style Least-Preferred Co-Worker Scale Derived from the expectancy theory
Expectancy theory – argues that people act as they do because they expect their behavior to produce satisfactory results.
Path-goal relationship, the leader facilitates task accomplishment by minimizing obstructions to the foals and by rewarding followers for completing their tasks.
Helps staffing associates assess needs, explore alternatives
Helps associates make the most beneficial decisions
Rewards personnel for task achievement, and provides additional opportunities for satisfying goal accomplishment.
Structured activity can increase motivation by reducing role ambiguity and allowing for externally imposed controls.
•Situational leadership predicts the most appropriate leadership style from the level of maturity of the people
•Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard
A horizontal continuum registers low emphasis on the accomplishment of task ok the left side of the model to high emphasis on task behavior on the right side.
The vertical continuum depicts low emphasis on interpersonal relationship at the bottom of the model and high on the top.
The maturity level of the group or individual is depicted on a continuum.
High, Moderate, and Low are the Maturity line
People mature as they progress from passive to an active state and from dependence to independence.
Exchange posture that identifies needs of followers and provides rewards to meet those needs in exchange for expected performance
The leader is a caretaker who sets goals for employees, focuses on day-to-day operations, and uses management by exception Integrative Leadership Model • Leaders are rarely totally people oriented or task oriented.
• Leader, followers, situation – all influence leadership effectiveness
• Leaders need to be aware of their own behavior and influence on others, individual differences of followers, group characteristics, motivation, task structures, environmental factors, and situational variables and adjust their leadership style accordingly.
• Adaptive behavior is required. Transformational Leadership Promotes employee development
Attends to needs and motives of followers
Inspires through optimism
Influences changes in perception
Provides intellectual stimulation
Encourages follower creativity
Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus indicated four (4) strategies in taking charge
Attention through vision – vision should be clear
Meaning through communication – creative way of communication, open communication
Trust through positioning – positions must be clear to the subordinates
Deployment of self • James Kouzes and Barry Posner identified five (5) basic practices and ten (10) specific behaviors that involves leadership
Challenging the process by searching for opportunities, and experimenting and taking risks
Inspiring a shared vision by envisioning the future and enlisting others
Enabling others to act by fostering collaboration and strengthening others
Modeling the way by setting an example and planning small wins
Encouraging the heart by recognizing individual contributions and celebrating accomplishments
Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio indicate that transformational leaders change the organization by realigning the organization’s culture with the new vision and revision of assumptions, values, and norms.
They identified four (4) components that characterize transformational leaders
William Hitt defines leadership as affecting people and identified five (5) types of knowledge needed by a leader
Knowing oneselfKnowing the organizationKnowing the jobKnowing the functions of leadersKnowing the world
He also identified six (6) core functions of a leader
ValuingVisioningCoachingEmpoweringTeam buildingPromoting quality
And lists attributes essential for leadership such as identity, independence, authenticity, responsibility, courage, and integrity.