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Strategies to alleviate uneven development

National strategies

Mohamad Khirsyaban Iskandar

on 22 February 2013

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Transcript of Strategies to alleviate uneven development

National development Improve water supply and sanitation Countries without proper water supply and sanitation less developed so important to ensure citizens have this basic needs met Example: Although Ahmedabad is a major commercial, industrial and financial centre, 41% of the people live in slums and squatter settlements.
More than 25% do not have toilet facilities. Parivartan slum networking programme Slum dwellers provided with water pipes and underground sewage to have access to clean water and sanitation
People educated on proper usage of the facilities to prevent them from getting damage and repairing them Effectiveness Reduced spread of diseases for >56 000 people in over 40 slums
Decline in death rates from 6.9 to 3.7 per 1000 people
Improves the standard of living and hence helps region to develop Improve education standards Countries with high literacy rates are more likely to be developed as people who can read and write are more likely to find jobs and upgrade their skills Example: Hill tribe communities in Northern Thailand such as Hmong, Lahu and Karen tribes live in extreme poverty compared to other Thais living in more developed areas like Bangkok.
They have no formal education and are illiterate hence have a much lower standard of living. Hill Tribe Education Project Provides 'Education for All' by promoting literacy
Volunteer teachers from more developed areas recruited to teach basic Thai Language, Mathematics, Life and Social Skills
Community Learning Centre built in each village for both adults and children to acquire education and skills
Programme also includes teaching sustainable farming methods to increase agricultural production Effectiveness Able to find employment in the cities, increasing their income as they have the basic education and skills
Improved agricultural production also generates income Geographical distribution of hill tribes makes it difficult to reach out to large numbers as they live in small communities distributed over large remote areas
Communication barriers between the volunteers and hill tribes makes it difficult for knowledge to be transmitted Population Control A large population requires alot of resources to support the people.
Overpopulation may lead to shortage of jobs and housing as well as limited access to education as there are too many people competing for the limited resources. Example: In early 1970s, the Chinese government realised that its population was growing too quickly.
This trend would lead to problems of overpopulation ONE child policy Incentives given to couples who adhere to policy such as having priority for housing, free access to education and better employment prospects
Disincentives for couples who flout the rules such as compulsory sterilisations and forced abortions
Marriage age raised to 22 for men and 20 for women
Couples have to apply for permission from the authorities to get married and have a child Effectiveness worked well in cities but not in rural areas due to traditional beliefs and the need for children on farms
birth rates decreased too much and adjustments have to be made to ensure sufficient people to support elderly in future Creation of jobs and financial assistance Lower GDP per capita leads to slower development
Unemployment leads to less income to meet basic needs Example: Most poor people have no formal education or skills
Difficult to gain employment, could only work in informal sector which is labour intensive and require little skills
Little attention given to informal sector and small businesses rarely given loans so they tend to fail due to lack of financing KALAHI Plan Implemented to raise standard of living by raising employment and income of the poor
Microfinance given to small businesses to help them develop
Businesses assessed by NGOs and government to ensure productivity
Ultra poor given interest free loans to develop businesses.
Training and advice provided to run businesses productively and effectively. Effectiveness Benefited 3 million people with 600 000 jobs created through job placement schemes for 1.7 million unemployed people
Poverty rates decrease so more people can afford basic necessities More needs to be done to close gap between rich and poor
Greater market access needed for the poor so people can purchase their goods and services
More volunteers needed to reach out to provide training Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan (Linking arms against poverty]
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