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Middle Ages: Africa and Asia

African Kingdoms, Ottoman, Safavid, Mughals, and Mongols!
by

Carolina Lopez

on 6 November 2012

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Transcript of Middle Ages: Africa and Asia

Africa, Middle East, and Asia Middle Ages Everywhere Else photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli 3 Major Kingdoms
Ghana (750-1200)
Mali (1240-1400)
Songhai (1464-1600)

Trade Route
Gold/Salt African Kingdoms Ottoman
Safavid
Mughal Gunpowder Empires China's Golden Age
Practiced Feudal Relationships
Empress Wu Zeitan reformed China to Golden Age
Accomplishments in art, literature, architecture, sculpting, porcelain. poetry. painting, and even gardening
Silk Road jam packed with products China: Tang Dynasty (618-907) Continued to build atop the achievements of the Tang
Great social and economic progress
Standardized coins
Eliminated forced labor for emperor
Populous cities and much trade happened
Introduction of gunpowder to other societies
Like previous dynasties, Confucianist ideals strong
Foot-binding became popular practice for wealthy women
Reemphasized male dominance
Greatest threat came from Northern nomadic tribes.
Allied themselves with people from North called Mongols
BIG MISTAKE!! China: Song Dynasty (960-1279) Nomadic tribe that were excellent horseman and archers
United and led by Chinggis Khan (Ghengis Khan)
Attacked Northern China, took city of Beijing
Moved Westward and captured many Muslim states
Attacked swiftly with catapults
Showed little to no mercy once city was won, known to kill whole towns
While feared, Mongols showed tolerance for different religions
Under Khan, Mongols held the LARGEST LAND EMPIRE the world has ever seen
Later,Mongol empire split up into four kingdoms, each ruled by Khan's descendants
Kublai Khan ended up as next emperor to China's Yuan Dynasty.
Famous Italian traveler, Marco Polo, journeyed along Silk Road and visited China under Kublai Khan.
Was astounded and entranced by the awesomeness of Khan's court and technological superiority that China held over Europe. THE MONGOLS! Settled in between two rivers
Used Iron to gain control over W. African trading
Would trade gold for salt. Why Salt?
Kings held power by a tax tribute system, very much like European Feudalism.
1076: Muslims from the north invade
Bring Islam to area
Kingdom never recovers Kingdom of Ghana Kingdom of Mali Took over what once was Ghana
Islam became adopted religion
Mansa Musa was most famous ruler
As a Muslim, he made a famous pilgramage to Mecca in 1324
Visited many places along the way
Brought back Muslim scholars and architects
Timbuktu, trading center, flourished as important Muslim Center
Ibn Battuta, Arab traveler, impressed by Mali's wealth and wrote about it Kingdom of Songhai Sultan Sunni Ali captured Timbuktu and brought region in his control
Largest of the 3 Kingdoms
Like other kingdoms, Songhai grew rich from TRADE
Timbuktu still florished as a Muslim Center
Morocco invaded and took control
Couldn't maintain control from afar Nomadic Group from Central Asia
Rulers of Islamic world in 13th century
Captured Constantinople from Byzantines in 1453
Controlled Mediterranean trade between Europe and Asia
Conquered N. Africa and parts of E. Europe
Culturally diverse, had Jewish and Christian communities
Sultan is a ruler, centralized in Istanbul (Constantinople) Ottoman Safavid Islam spread to Persia
Shi'ite Muslims
Opposed to Ottomans
Identity of Safavid different up until today (Iran)
Safavid Empire famous for carpets
Shahs is a ruler
Mughal Taken from "Mongol"
Close ties to Safavid
Invaded and conquered parts of Northern India
Slaughtered inhabitants/Hindus
Most famous ruler, Akbar the Great
Set out to unite using religious tolerance
Stressed education
Akbar's Grandson, Shah Jahan
Not as tolerant a ruler
Ordered destruction of temples and imposed taxes on Hindus, many converted to Islam
Mughal Artistic high point
New Religion develops called Sikhism
Result of Muslim/Hindu interactions
Belief in Reincarnation and in ONE god
Goal is to build an everlasting, close relationship with god through meditation
Teaches equal status and living in moderation.
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