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Solar Energy

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Natasha Rambaran

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of Solar Energy

SOLAR POWER:
The Energy of the Future


Solar Energy:
GERMANY
Developed Country
One of the top producers, top buyers and installers of solar panels
Record Holder: 2012 – 22 GW produced in one sunny day
Leadership model for solar power

Impacts of Solar Energy
Case Study:
Gujarat Power Corporation & Its Benefits
Basic infrastructure development benefits
 Communication network
 Provision of Irrigation water
 Employment generation of about 1500 people
 Economic upliftment of rural area
 Increase in Water conservation
 Increase in Vegetation cover
 Reduction in desertification process
 Carbon Emission reduction
India
FACTS AND FIGURES

About 300 sunny days a year (whole country)
Main areas of solar energy production are Gujarat province and Thar desert
31.7 million hectares of arid land
61.7% of this land is Thar Desert (345-355 days of sunlight)

Solar Energy:
What is it?
Energy derived from the sun's radiation
The world's most abundant source of
renewable and sustainable
energy
Two main developments:
(1)

solar thermal
energy
(2)

solar photovoltaic
energy
use of PV cells/panels
How does
solar power
work?
Energy radiated by the sun=
infra-red & visible radiation
with small amount ultra-violet

Photovoltaic cells
, (a.k.a solar panels) are made of
semiconductor materials
(n-type and p-type)
When sunlight hits the cells, electrons are knocked loose from their atoms.
As the electrons flow through the cell=electricity.
Solar thermal
power plants concentrate the sun's energy as a
heat source
.
The heat is then used to boil water to drive a steam turbine that generates electricity (similar to coal and nuclear power plants)

Adopting solar energy as a future source of renewable energy will become increasingly relevant to government & corporate agencies in the future, particularly in regards to
economic and environmental policy.
Thesis:
The Future of Solar Energy
Thar Desert
POSITIVE vs. NEGATIVE Impacts of Solar Energy
Negative Impacts of Solar Energy
A developing technology
Northern countries at a "permanent" disadvantage
Land-use and other environmental concerns
Enormous investment required to supply greater part of globe's energy needs
Positive Impacts of Solar Energy
Photovoltaic vs. Solar Thermal
I give off
174 quadrillion watts
to the Earth!
"Satellite observations of total solar irradiance". Acrim.com. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
Future Predictions
Theories & Impacts on Society
TEXT POLL
Government Policies
The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (set up 2009)
"to make solar power as affordable as conventional power by 2022"
Solar developers must use Indian-made products
Voluntarily reduce emissions intensity of GDP by 20-25% by 2020
High government subsidies
Solar power accounts for 6% of total energy capacity (185 GW)
Gujarat Solar Park
2,000-hectare (4,900-acre) plot of land
Group of solar parks
60% owned by Indian government and state-owned companies.
A total of 84 developers (21 companies, 4 from USA) have registered to build a total of 968.5 MW
Operators believe economies of scale from the 280-billion-rupee ($4.4 billion) Sambhar plant to be constructed over the next seven years will reduce prices to 5.0-5.5 rupees a kilowatt-hour
POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO SUPPORT SOLAR ENERGY
Green source of energy
Shorter construction period
Faster production of energy
Predictable
It Depends...
Solar power is a decentralized and renwable source of energy
What is the
most
you would be willing to spend on solar energy in addition to your current electric bill?
a) For $0/month:
432123
b) For $5/month:
432124
c) For $10/month:
432125
d) For $15/month:
432127
e) For $20/month:
432142
TEXT:
Political Consequences
A proposed solar park in Sambhar would destroy Sambhar Lake ecosystem and tourism opportunities
Solar energy may bring power to one third of the population that is without electricity
this would increase government support
India is seen as the new global leader in renewable energy
much like Japan with the Kyoto Protocol, there is a lot to be gained on the international stage.
Centralization means little opposition

Feed-in-tariffs
Investment Tax Credits
Subsidies
Renewable energy portfolio standards
Financing Facilitation
Public Investment
Net Metering
Government Mandates and Regulatory Provisions

Solar Energy Policy:
Germany
Feed-in-tariffs
Contract duration time of 20 years
tariff based on the cost of electricity produced plus a reasonable profit for the producer
Incentives
Investment Grants
Tax incentives
Solar Energy Policy:
India
National Tariff Policy (2006)
Rajasthan Solar Policy (2010)
Gujarat Solar Policy (2009)

Barriers to Development/ Deployment of Solar Energy Technologies
Technical/Technological
Competing with conventional energy infrastructure
Economic
Initial system costs
Financing
Institutional
Workforce Training
Existing laws and regulations

Future Prospects for Solar Energy
In 2005, global solar markets reached US$ 11.8 billion, up 55% on 2004
Competition with conventional energy
Continuation of existing supports and introduction of new supports would be necessary for several decades

Solar Power Initiatives:
How & why did this growth happen?
-EGG of 1991
Buy power from citizens at a fixed rate; slightly above market rate
Attracted investors/ long term investment
Federal investment of billions of dollars
Came in effect in 2000s
-Government subsidies and Feed-in Tariffs
-Strong on Environmental Politics
-Citizens are very informed
-Decentralized solar power
-Creation of Jobs and Expansion of corporations
-A more mature solar energy market
Statistics (2013)


Germany Solar Industry Association (2014)
PV systems – 1.4 million
CO2 savings – 2.1 million tonnes
Full-Time Jobs – 50 000 – 65 000
Number of PV companies (suppliers and installers)=5000
200 are producers of cells, modules and other components
Power Generation: 29.7 GW
Market data: -57%; 7700MWP newly installed (2012) – 3300 MWP
Poll on German ‘Energy Transition’ or ‘Energy Revolution’ January 2011; 2012; and June 2012
1000 citizens
90% said it was very important or important

COSTS & BENEFITS

-Low ‘soft’ cost
-Low cost of solar power
10 cents per KW per hour/ 6-8 cents for coal powered energy per KW per hour
-22% of Germany’s energy is renewable energy
-Solar panel price has fallen 66% since 2006
-Renewable energy cost is not cheap
-Cloudy country
-Wind power is still a much cheaper form of clean energy in Germany
-Decrease in employment
-Unstable market of solar power

GOALS:
Abolish nuclear power by
2023
8 out of 17 power plants were shut down after Fukushima effect
Wholesale electricity prices have jumped approximately 10 percent since the eight nuclear plants were shut
Reduce 40% of greenhouse gases by 2020
Berlin – stop subsidies by 2018
52 GW of power by 2017/2018
Scaling back feed-in-tariffs

CASE STUDY:
Freiburg, Germany
220 000
155km2 of land
South-west corner of Germany
‘Solar City’ and ‘Green City’
900 years old
Progressive on Energy Politics since 1970s:
3 pillars: Energy Saving, Renewable Energy, Efficient Technologies
Energy Saving:
65 kw/h for heating maximum
‘Passive houses’
Efficient Technology:
Combined Heat and Power plants for district heating systems
80% wood chips and 20% natural gases
Renewable Energy:
10 million kw/a year; more than enough
6000 euros a year for their residents

Sources:
http://www.jocet.org/show-7-278-1.html
http://muse.jhu.edu.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/books/9781438442969/
http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/science/article/pii/S0301421512009688
http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/pdf/electricity_generation.pdf
http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Economic-Aspects/Economics-of-Nuclear-Power/
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/56776.pdf
-Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies
Govinda R. Timilsina, Lado Kurdgelashvili, Patrick A. Narbel
-A review on global solar energy policy
K.H. Solangi, M.R. Islam, R. Saidur, N.A. Rahim, H. Fayaz
-Concentrating solar power – Technology, potential and policy in India
Amita Ummadisingu, M.S. Soni
http://cleantechnica.com/2013/02/09/germany-solar-power-lessons/#eEKc8xcDmD0zEE9K.99
http://content.lib.sfu.ca.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/cdm/ref/collection/sfulibr/id/151
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00908319708908903#.UyvROyiLQ5Q
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uesb20
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gwof20
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ueso20#.UyvRsiiLQ5Q
http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-03-17/news/48297593_1_grid-parity-solar-capacity-solar-power
http://www.businessinsider.com/india-building-worlds-largest-solar-plant-2014-1#ixzz2wX1fL7Cj
http://www.thegreenage.co.uk/cos/gujarat-solar-park-india/
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/Vasundhara-Rajes-green-concern-a-black-spot-on-solar-plant/articleshow/30134674.cms

2006: Largest solar cell markets
Solar Energy:
FIGURES
Full transcript