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Mask of Benevolence, Part Five: The Education of Deaf Children
Transcript of Mask of Benevolence, Part Five: The Education of Deaf Children
ASL 201:02 T/Th 8 am-9:50
By: Valerie Faulk
3/29/11 Key issues are.. "Forced assimilation" 1. Oralism 2. Day Schools 3. English Dominancy 4. Mainstreaming 5. Surgery The effects are GLOBAL! Focused mostly on the U.S
the information is consistant
in countries all over the world
The avg. 16 year old
deaf students reading level
is equivalent to an eight year
The same groups mathmatical
proficiency level is on avg. four
4% of study could read complex
Deaf students have 1/5 the chance
a hearing student does in passing the
national achievment test taken at 15. In 1986, congress began to take a
closer look at educating deaf
populations: they concluded,
"the present status of education
for persons who are deaf in the U.S
is unsatisfactory. Unacceptably so."
(Lane, 132) The notion that deaf children are not receiving
adaquate education has been awknowleged for over
50 years, but little has changed for the better. Children born deaf and children who become
deaf have different experiences that should be taken
into account when they seldomly are. Educators are solely concerned with the teaching
of the language and academic leaning is not done. Audist have successfully oppressed deaf peoples
for centuries Five stages 1. Oralism (1860's-~1970's) 2.Day Schools (1900's) 3. English Dominancy (1970-1985) 4. Mainstream (1977-present) 5. Surgery (present) movement to banish signed language
and deaf teachers from residential schools
Goal= Oralize students by teaching them
the national language by using methods
such as, lip reading, speech clinics
and excess time.
Increased the number of deaf people who
had no culture and skills to find work.
Deducted from time spent on forms of
education not focused on language.
"Asl is not seen today in the classrooms of
American schools for deaf children."(Lane, 132) Considered a contemorary form of mainstream schooling.
Small classes of all deaf students within a regular hearing school.
Classes conducted in spoken english.
Goal= A child could live at home in a majority-launguage environment, and never learn any form of manual language or interact with other deaf people.
Students learned own forms of signed language, often married classmates and joined the deaf community.
exiled deaf student populations from hearing students. Reinforced english as the students native by encouraging its use in ALL classroom communication.
Included: Finger-spelling, lip reading, written english, speech, speech-sign, S.E.E, pantomine,and drawing.
Goal= Improve communication between student and teacher by allowing use of all mechanisms available.
Allowed educators to focus on teaching the english language, not on education.
Futher increased the gap of students graduating with an inadaquate level of knowledge.
Aided in reemerging the "Oral-manual controversy" and "bitter methods dispute".
Teachers would make a mockery of both the spoken language and signed language by trying to combine the two together.
Teachers/student communication was better but comprehension rates were terrible. Though it wasn't really a dispute on methodologies, but a fight to oppress deaf culture, politics, and history. Equivalent to Day School but in a small scale.
Deaf students attend normal schools but are dispersed throughout regular classes.
Uses varied teaching methods to promote, "total Communication"
If available interpreters are assigned, but not guarenteed.
Goal= Maintain an oralist environment while giving a student the best oppertunity to gain a good education. Also promote the "deinstitutionalizing" movement.
Promotes audists perceptions of how deaf should be in our society.
"total communication" gives false impression that a deaf student understands what is being communicated.
Creates a "make-do" mentality for deaf students, where they ignore what they don't understand and never learn to communicate.
Lack of peer support, teacher/student relationship is non-existant.
When interpreter is involved, most activities get lost in translation. Coclear implants were approved by the FDA for children as young as 12 months in the year 2000.
Highly promoted by audist and opposed by deaf.
Goal= fix deafness in children enough to have a normal life and excel as a mainstreamed student.
Did not fix social issues, only aided in the already confusing culture barrier. (leaves some feeling they don't belong in either world)
Shifted the focus of helping resolve issues to the elimination of them. On cochlear implants... Basis in which we Educate the deaf is lead by tons of misconceptions. Considered by some to be, "The Mojorities attempt to resolve the social issues [of deafness] by denying their existance."(Lane, 135) British Deaf News claimed, "Cochlear Implants- Oralisms Final Solution" when speaking against the International Congress on the Education of the Deaf for participation in Cochlear Implantations. The Author believes, teachers in support of the use of cochlear implants are also in support of "forced assimilation" and are in denial of the differences in deaf and hearing culture. Nearly 3/4 of 80,000 American deaf students are mainstreamed and do not have cochlear implants. The expansion of cochlear implants has led to the increase belief that mainstreaming deaf students is the new social norm. The result is the closure of many specialized schools
for the deaf or are supporting multiply handicapped
students. Root causes of oppressed education for the deaf the answers vary... but,
Parents are misguided by poor advised from "experts" who create plan based on what works best for their intitutions and do not care about the wishes of either student or parent.
Parents prefer to have children at home with them and get counsel from audist or services advocating for disabled population, both of which support "forced assimilation".
Administrators and teachers have ways to keep parents on the "outside" by withholding information Oralism favored by audist to instruct deaf Forced assimilation Definition of assimilate= To bring into conformity with the customs, attitudes, etc., of a group, nation, or the like; adapt or adjust. Deinstitutionalization Consequences of Being Uneducated and Deaf one third of all occupations require more than a high school degree. Many are illprepared to make a living. May be placed in "living skills program" which is in other words a "day care". On Mainstreaming.. It is impossible for a deaf child to do two things at once, when watching an interpreter student will constantly miss visuals from teacher. Interpreters are a cause to several downfalls in mainstreaming deaf children, such as; lack of competency in all subject matter, few are cirtified as an interpreter and lack needed skills, good interpreters are hard to find and expensive. What it "Forced Assimilation"? Audist promote forced assimilation when advocating for oralism because they are trying to change the nature of deaf learning to fit what they think is the right way.
As stages of "forced assimilation" fail, blame is put on not the creators but the participants within the system.
Audist keep control by providing alternate plans to "fix" the broken system of education as it fails, though the prior system was their idea in the first place.
Populations are on the quest for a cure based on a fixed goal (forced assimilation) which people dont seem to question, provides basis for oppression. Mainstreamed deaf children do not learn indirect/unintentional messages such as, morals/beliefs, feelings, attitudes and social skills. deaf students are dispersed and there are too small of numbers to start programs to aid in recreation. What is "deinstitutionalization"?
And, how does it fit in here? In the 1990's the Disability rights movement took off and advocates fought to let disabled populations into society and out of harboring institutions to have more normal lifestyles.
This was reinforced by several court ruling stating all handicapped children be place in the least restrictive environment.
Movement promoted cost containment, dependency and freedom and still offered outlets of help to those in need. Residetial schools for the deaf were seen as costly and created fears among adovocates of Deinstitutionalization. The fear was that providing segregated schooling for the deaf would result in a backlash in their "hard-won integration of mentally/physically handicapped kids to the community" So in 1990, to squash their fears, advocates of this movement tried to shut down the oldest residential school for the deaf. Deaf leaders around the world fought back, (and won). This set precedent for the advocates of the disability rights movement to form an alliance with audist.
Residential schools are and have been the best route for educating the deaf and they were now being threatend by two seperate populations whose goals are to discontinue their existance. based on the notion students should be in least restrictive learning environments, residential schools are considered to be the best option for deaf students. But with the help of the disability movement school administations had and easier time not offering this to deaf children and forced them into regular oral-based schools. Residential Schools If signed language is used are considered most successful school for deaf children. Even when sign was restricted still very beneficial for deaf children. Offers: Ability to communicate with other human beings.
Deaf students can expirence culture and have a supportive community.
Can easily get after class help, counseling, participate in after school activities, develop relationships with adults and peers and develope self-respect as a deaf person. * even when sign was banished from residential schools students still experienced the benefits of the learning atmosphere and learned sign in groups on the side. One may ask, Where are these kids parents? Solutions? **It is proven that the deaf children who perform the best in both mainstream or Residential schools are the 10% that were taught sign language as their NATIVE language from their parents at home. REMEMBER:
* resourceful and determines parents outwit institutions (aka:the man)
to get what they want.
* "communication is the essence of education" and " educational disasters
has resulted from using oral language, weather spoken or written to
instruct deaf children."