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The United Nations

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Frida Flores

on 16 September 2015

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Transcript of The United Nations

The United Nations
Frida Flores Gutiérrez A01350878
Erika Arely Cabrera A01172832

United Nations Organs
What the United Nations is?
General Assembly
Afghanistan,Albania,Algeria,Andorra,Angola,Antigua and Barbuda,Argentina,Armenia,Australia,Austria,Azerbaijan,Bahamas,Bahrain,Bangladesh,Barbados,Belarus,Belgium,Belize,Benin,Bhutan,Bolivia (Plurinational State of),Bosnia and Herzegovina,Botswana,Brazil,Brunei Darussalam,Bulgaria,Burkina Faso,Burundi,Cabo Verde,Cambodia,Cameroon,Canada,Central African Republic,Chad,Chile,China,Colombia
,Comoros,Congo,Costa Rica,Côte D'Ivoire,Croatia,Cuba,Cyprus,Czech Republic,Democratic People's Republic of Korea,Democratic Republic of the Congo,Denmark,Djibouti,Dominica,Dominican Republic,Ecuador,Egypt,El Salvador,Equatorial Guinea,Eritrea,Estonia,Ethiopia,Fiji,Finland,France,Gabon,Gambia,Georgia,Germany,Ghana,Greece,Grenada,Guatemala,Guinea,Guinea Bissau,Guyana,Haiti,Honduras,Hungary,Iceland,India,Indonesia,Iran (Islamic Republic of),Iraq,Ireland,Israel,Italy,Jamaica,Japan,Jordan,Kazakhstan,Kenya,Kiribati,Kuwait,Kyrgyzstan,Lao People’s Democratic Republic,Latvia,Lebanon,Lesotho,Liberia,Libya,Liechtenstein,Lithuania,Luxembourg,Madagascar,Malawi,Malaysia,Maldives,Mali,Malta,Marshall Islands,Mauritania,Mauritius,Mexico,Micronesia (Federated States of),Monaco,Mongolia,Montenegro,Morocco,Mozambique,Myanmar,Namibia,Nauru,Nepal,Netherlands,New Zealand,Nicaragua,Niger,Nigeria,Norway,Oman,Pakistan,Palau,Panama,Papua New Guinea,Paraguay,Peru,Philippines,Poland,Portugal,Qatar,Republic of Korea,Republic of Moldova,Romania,Russian Federation,Rwanda,Saint Kitts and Nevis,Saint Lucia,Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,Samoa,San Marino,Sao Tome and Principe,Saudi Arabia,Senegal,Serbia,Seychelles,Sierra Leone,Singapore,Slovakia,Slovenia,Solomon Islands,Somalia,South Africa,South ‎Sudan,Spain,Sri Lanka,Sudan,Suriname,Swaziland,Sweden,Switzerland,Syrian Arab Republic,Tajikistan,Thailand,The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,Timor-Leste,Togo,Tonga,Trinidad and Tobago,Tunisia,Turkey,Turkmenistan,Tuvalu,Uganda,Ukraine,United Arab Emirates,United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,United Republic of Tanzania,United States of America,Uruguay,Uzbekistan,Vanuatu,Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of),Vietnam,Yemen,Zambia and Zimbabwe. (Member States of the United Nations, N.D)
General Assembly Members
The United Nations is an organization created in the wake of World War II. It is an international organization that has currently 193 member states and contains
nearly every country on the world since every independent state may become a member. It gives an independent state the opportunity to discuss issues that affect it individually and globally. (United Nations Overview, N.D)
The motto and Emblem
"The United Nations it`s your world"
History of the United Nations
States first started international organizations that were meant to be for an specific goal; for example: The International Telecommunication Union that was founded in 1865. The ancestor of the United Nations was the League of Nations that was formed in WWI with the Treaty of Versailles; however, it ceased activities after failing to prevent WWII. The name of "United Nations" was first used by Franklin Roosevelt in the Declaration by United Nations in 1942 when representatives of 26 nations decided to continue fighting against the Axis Powers. In 1945, 50 representative met in San Francisco and signed the United Nations Charter; the charter was signed on 26 June 1945 and Poland, that was not represented in the conference signed the charter later,and became an original 51 Member State. (History of the United Nations, N.D)
Security Council
The Security Council is the organ responsible of the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 members, 5 permanents and 10 non-permanents, in which each member has a vote. The presidency of the council rotates monthly according to the English alphabetical list order. It can impose sanctions or even permit the use of force to restore peace and order, but usually i tries to recommend methods of adjustment. This council is also in charge of investigate any situation which may lead to international friction and to take military action against and aggressor. (United Nations Security Council, N.D)
Members of the Security Council
Permanents: China,France,Russian Federation,the United Kingdom and the United States
Non-permanents: Rotated every 2 years, for 2015-2016 are Angola,Chad,Chile,Jordan,Lithuania,Malaysia,New Zealand,Nigeria,Spain and Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of).
At least, 60 United Nations Member States have never been part of the Security Council, but they participate (without a vote) when the debates of the said Council affects their interests. (United Nations Security Council's Current Members, N.D)
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice serves as the main judicial organ of the United Nations and is not the same as the International Criminal Court because its role is to settle legal disputes between States, it hears the cases of individuals accused from genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Also, it is the only one of the six principal organs that is not located in NY, instead, it is located in The Hage, Netherlands. Another role, is to settle, as disposed by international law, legal disputes between the States and to give advisory opinion on legal matters to the States that required it. (International Court of Justice, N.D)
Members of the International Court of Justice
UN Millennium Development Goals
15 judges elected every 9 years by the UN General Assembly and the Security Council.
One third (5 judges) are elected every 3 years.
Re-election is possible.
Not more than one national of the same State.
Membership divided by the principal regions of the world: Africa (3), Latin America and the Caribbean (2), Asia (3), Western Europe and other States (5), Eastern Europe (2).
Only the President of the court resides in The Hage.
(Members of the International Court of Justice, N.D)
Secretariat
The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ of the United Nations. It is divided in six main committees that are in charge of discussing different issues: the first committee is in charge of discussing disarmament and general security, the second one is in charge of economic and financial issues, the third is in charge of social, humanitarian and cultural issues, the fourth one is in charge of political and decolonization issues, the fifth one is in charge of administrative and budgetary issues and the sixth one is in charge of legal issues. The main functions of this organ are: to make decisions that concern peace and security, to discuss any question related to international security, and to initiate studies to promote international political cooperation. Admission of new members and budgetary matters are also discussed on the general debate held each year on September. All Member States (193) are part of this organ. Each year, a GA President is elected among the State Members. (General Assembly of the United Nations, N.D)
Goal 1.- To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; Basically the Secretary of UN analyzes and advises many cities about how to develop this aspect, also they state that everybody should always have nutritional equality.

Goal 2.- To achieve universal primary education; The objective is to achieve education for all children and ensure good living conditions to guarantee the development of this aspect. In this section, the influence of organizations such as UNICEF is really important.

Goal 3.- Promote gender equality and empower women; This aspect ensures equity of genre and sets the development of women in the labor camps as well as they try to be objective in giving access to education to girls. In the same way, one of the major relationships that they have for the development of this is goal is with UNGEI.

Goal 4.- Reduce child mortality; Attempts to save the greatest number of children by establishing better conditions that can be developed in order to reduce the mortality rate. One of the most outstanding movements that are aiming at the successful achievement of this point is "Every Woman, Every Child".

UN staff members are recruited internationally, and may work on peacekeeping missions all around the world or they may survey economic and social trends and problems to prepare studies in human rights and sustainable development. (United Nations Secretariat, N.D)

Goal 5.- To improve maternal health; The movement "“Every Woman, Every Child”. Offers help to achieve this goal by the previously mentioned motion.

Goal 6.- Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and
other diseases: They achieve this target by means of The Pan-American Health Organization that has headquarters in several countries, which allows to have a wider treatment of the HIV. They also focus in the services provision, on fighting for equity ,more specifically against the discrimination, and to be sure that everybody receives a good service.

Goal 7.- To ensure environmental sustainability; The secretary of the UN is responsible for this situation through the actions to the cities, this goal tries to develop and encourage governments to be environmentally sustainable.

Goal 8.- To develop a global partnership to promote the world development.
(United Nations Millennium Development Goals and Beyond, N.D)
Members of the Secretariat
UN staff members.
Secretary-General.
Ban-Ki Moon, Secretary-General
UN Staff
Economic and Social Council
The economic and Social Council is the principal organ that coordinates the economic and social work of the United Nations and its operational arms. This council has 54 members that are elected by the general assembly for a three years period. The main tasks for this organ are to encourage global respect for human rights, identify solutions for international problems, and promote higher living standards. (United Nations Economic and Social Council, N.D)
It comprises the Secretary-General and international UN staff members. The Secretary-General is chief-administrative office of the Organization, delegated by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a 5 year, renewable term. He/She must be the spokesman for the interests of the worlds people. (Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 2014)
Members of the Economic and Social Council
Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council is an UN organ that allows to examine and discuss reports that have to do with the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the people in the trust territory.Its members have to administer trust territories. (The United Nations and Decolonization Trusteeship Council, N.D)
Members of the Trusteeship Council
Germany, Albania, Barbuda, Argentine, Austria, Australia, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Basil, Burkina Faso, China, Colombia, Congo, Croatia, United States of America, Estonia, Russia, Finland, France, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Mauricio, Nepal, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mauritania, Panama, Portugal, the Republic of Korea, Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Democratic Republic of the Congo, San Marino, Serbia, South Africa, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Turkmenistan, Zimbabwe. (United Nations Economic and Social Council's members, N.D)
The Trusteeship is composed by five members in permanent status of the Security Council who are: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. (Members of the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations, N.D)

References
About the General Assembly of the United Nations. (N.D).
General Assembly of the United Nations
. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/ga/about/index.shtml
History of the United Nations. (N.D).
History of the United Nations
. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/history/
International Court of Justice. (N.D).
International Court of Justice
. Retrieved from: http://www.icj-cij.org/homepage/index.php?lang=en
International Court of Justice The Court. (N.D). International Court of Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.icj-cij.org/court/index.php?p1=1&p2=2
Secretary-General, Ban-Ki moon (2014). Secretary-General Ban-Ki moon. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/sg/
United Nations Secretariat. (N.D).
United Nations Secretariat
. Retrived from: http://www.un.org/en/sections/about-un/secretariat.html
Member States. (N.D)
Member States
. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/members/
Trusteeship Council. (N.D).
Trusteeship Council
. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/mainbodies/trusteeship/
Trusteeship Council Members. (N.D). Trusteeship Council. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/mainbodies/trusteeship/
United Nations Economic and Social Council. (N.D).
United Nations Economic and Social Council
. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/
United Nations Economic and Social Council Members. (N.D).
United Nations Economic and Social Council Members
. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/index.shtml
United Nations Security Council. (N.D).
United Nations Security Council
. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/sc/
United Nations Security Council's Memebers (N.D).
United Nations Security Council
. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/sc/members/
United Nations Millennium Development Goals. (n.d.). In Un.org. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml
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