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HP 2 The Southern Colonies (Vol. #1)
Transcript of HP 2 The Southern Colonies (Vol. #1)
The southern colonies
(Volume #1 )
the great awakening
King Philip's War
We are all Stories in the End. Be HISTORIC!
A LATE SUPPER PRODUCTION
The Virginia Colony grows
The Jamestown colony
Culture Clash in the Chesapeake
Sinking of the Spanish Armada
House of Burgesses established–
Sir Edmund Andros
Captain John Smith
The Virginia House
The Starving Time
First African's arrive in Jamestown
Captain John Smith
Sir Walter Raleigh
comes to Virginia in 1585
~ Known as the
Virginia Dare (First English subject born in the New World)
(1588) What delayed the English supply ship headed back to Roanoke?
* The attack of the Spanish Armada
England defeats the Spanish Armada & finally breaks Spain's monopoly in the New World
Effects of Defeat of the Armada in Great Britain:
~ Strong sense of nationalism
~ Government support of colonization
~ Strong, popular monarch & religious unity
~ Set England on path to world dominance
If at first you don't succeed, try, try again...
The Charter of the Virginia Company of London (1606)
~ Guaranteed to colonists the same rights as Englishmen
~ These rights would be incorporated into future colonial documents.
Colonists felt that, even in the Americas, they had the rights of Englishmen!
England Plants the Jamestown “Seedling”
(Late 1606) Virginia Company sends out 3 ships
(Spring 1607) Land at mouth of Chesapeake Bay.
~ Attacked by Indians so they move on up the bay.
(May 24, 1607) 144 colonists [all men] land at Jamestown
~ Located along banks of the James River
~ Easily defended, but swarming with disease-causing mosquitoes.
Jamestown Settlement, 1607
Jamestown Fort & Settlement
Jamestown Chapel, 1611
Continuing Discovery at Jamestown
The Jamestown Nightmare
Not a great start
~ (1606-1607) 40 people died on the voyage to the New World.
~ (1609) Another ship from England lost its leaders & supplies
in a shipwreck off Bermuda.
Settlers died from...
~ disease, malnutrition, starvation –
~ (Winter 1609-1610) The “starving time”
Early“Gentlemen” colonists would not work
~ Game in forests & fish in river uncaught.
~ Wasted time looking for gold instead
~ Merchant directors (ineffective guidance)
Captain John Smith
The right man for the job?
~ John Smith took over in 1608
~ Becomes expert forager & Indian trader
Asks London Company for...
~ farmers, carpenters, masons, etc.
~ Smith stays in colony only 2 years, but it would
have perished without him
~ Smith was credited with saving the colony
"There was no talk…but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold…" -CJS
dominated a few dozen small tribes in
the James River area when the English arrived.
The English called all Indians in the area Powhatans.
probably saw the English as allies in his struggles to control other Indian tribes in the region.
A Rolfe Life
Powhatan Uprising of 1622
(1622-1644) periodic attacks between Indians and settlers.
Indians attacked the English, killing 347 [including
Virginia Company called for a
against Native Americans.
Raids reduced native population and drove them further westward.
Here we go again!
(1644-1646) Second Anglo-Powhatan War
~ Last effort of natives to defeat English.
~ Indians defeated again.
Powhatans suffered from 3 D’s
Disease, Disorganization, and Disposability.
Peace Treaty of 1646
~ Removed the Powhatans from their original land.
Formally separated Indian & English settlement areas
(origins of reservations).
John Rolfe & the Wacky Tobacco
"Virginia’s gold and silver."
John Rolfe, 1612
Early Colonial Tobacco
Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.
Despite losing one-third of its colonists
in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco
Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco
Virginia produces 1.5 Mil. pounds of tobacco
Virginia: “Child of Tobacco”
Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy
~ Vital role in putting Virginia on a firm economic footing.
~ Ruinous to soil when continuously planted –
(leads to continuous desire for LAND!)
Chained Virginia’s economy to a single crop.
~ Promoted headright system
~ Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system.
Need for cheap, abundant labor.
The Year was 1619
First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619.
~ Their status was not clear
* perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants.
~ Slavery not that important until the end of the 17th Century.
Virginia House of Burgesses Established
Growing Political Power
The House of Burgesses established in 1619
~ 1st representative form of government in America
Began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England
~ Control over finances, militia, etc.
By the end of the 17th Century, the HOB was able to initiate legislation
~ A Council appointed by royal governor
~ Mainly leading planters.
~ Functions like House of Lords.
High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.
Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony
Indentured Servitude Origins
The term indentured servant derives its name from
the indenture, or mark on two copies of the contract
the master and the servant signed.
To prevent one of the parties from trying to alter the contract, the two copies of the contract were laid on top of one other, and identical marks were made.
If anyone questioned the contract, the two pieces of paper would be placed on top of one other to try to match the marks.
~ Each Virginian got 50 acres for each laborer whose passage he paid
* System also used in Maryland
100,000 indentured servants in Virginia & Maryland by 1700 –
~ Cheaper than slaves
Indenture Contract (general terms)
~ Mostly young men, 15-25
~ 4 years (skilled) -7 years (unskilled)
~ Promised “freedom dues”
* Land, money, clothing, two hoes, and three barrels of corn
~ Forbidden to marry; no travel without permission.
(1610-1614) Only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!
Majority of Virginia settlers came as indentured servants
~ By late 1600s, large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area.
~ Little access to land or women for marriage.
(1670) The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men.
Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion 1676
Nathaniel Bacon led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley
~ Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians.
~ Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area.
Berkley refused to retaliate for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
Governor William Berkeley
Bacon’s Rebellion 1676
~ Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites.
~ Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown.
~ Rebels burned the capital and then went on a rampage of plundering.
~ Bacon died of disentery
Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels.
Results of Bacon’s Rebellion
It exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen and landless former servants against the gentry on coastal plantations (East-West Conflict)
Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural & urban communities which
will continue throughout American history.
Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel
Beginning in 1662 “Slave Codes”
~ Made blacks [and their children] chattel (property)
for the lifetime of white masters.
Reasons for the switch from Indentured Servants to Slaves
~ Planters fearful of mutinous former servants
Rising wages in England led to fewer willing to gamble on indentured servitude
~ Royal African Company loses monopoly on carrying slaves to colonies
~ Rhode Island becomes big slave trader
~ Indentured servants wanted land –
No one would want to give land to black slaves.
The Atlantic Slave Trade
Barbaric conditions, at least 20% died during this passage.
The “Middle Passage”
As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put down a perceived racial threat.
~ Slavery transformed from economic to economic and racial institution.
(Early 1600s) Differences between slave and servant were unclear.
(Mid-1680) Black slaves outnumbered white indentured servants & slave codes are entrenched.
The Settlement of Maryland
A royal charter was granted to George Calvert & Lord Baltimore, in 1632.
~ A proprietary colony created in 1634.
~ A healthier location than Jamestown.
Tobacco would be the main crop.
~ It was a "poor man’s crop” (not labor intensive like Sugar)
His plan was to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship.
~ Huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives.
St Mary’s City (1634)
Colonization of Maryland
A Haven for Catholics
Supposed to be a haven for Catholics but, the irony is...
~ Colonists were only willing to come to Maryland if they received land.
~ Colonists who did come received modest farms dispersed around the Chesapeake area.
~ Catholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers.
Conflict between barons & farmers led to Baltimore losing proprietary rights at the end of the 17th Century
In the late 1600s, black slaves began to be imported.
Great for Christians, but...
Baltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to prevent
repeat of persecution of Catholics by Protestants.
~ High number of Protestants threatened because of overwhelming rights
given to Catholics.
Toleration Act of 1649
~ Supported by the Catholics in Maryland
~ Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS.
Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus ( like Jews, atheists, etc.)
Settling the Lower South
~ Named after Charles II
~ Held by 8 proprietors with wide authority
Charleston established 1680 –
~ Busiest seaport in the U.S. & only seaport in the South
(1698-1775) Rice & Indigo Exports from South Carolina & Georgia
Eventually split into royal colonies in 1712
~ North Carolina is the poorer region (independent)
~ South Carolina is prosperous (aristocratic)
~ Settled by poverty-stricken outcasts
~ Religious dissenters from Virginia
~ Strong spirit of resistance to authority
~ Hospitable to pirates
~ They are Democratic, Independent, and NON-aristocratic
“A vale of humility between 2 mountains of conceit.”
Strong ties with the West Indies sugar islands
many settlers from there
~ Adopted its slave code
RICE becomes major crop in South Carolina
~ Set up strong slave trade
~ Sell over 10,000 Indian slaves to sugar islands
West African slaves become predominant labor source
~ Had experience with rice & Immune to malaria
West African slaves become majority of the population by 1710!
Georgia...The Last English Colony
Founded by James Oglethorpe & other London philanthropists, 1733
~ Took honest persons imprisoned for debts to resettle there
~ English want buffer from
Florida so they granted charter
Primary religious affiliation
~ Anglican church
~ Highly illiterate (not much formal schooling)
~ Slavery in all Southern colonies
Aristocratic atmosphere (except North Carolina)
~ Wealthy planters have the power
Rigid social class structure
Small Farmers (with slaves/without slaves)
River Settlement Pattern in the South
Settlement in the South
Large plantations [Over 100 acres]
Widely spread apart [5 miles] –
~ Leads to few large cities
~ Churches & schools difficult to establish
~ Waterways are the main
High Mortality Rates
~ Adult life expectancy:
~ Death of children before age 5:
Not many children have grandparents
High mortality among husbands & fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy & wealth compared to women in other colonial regions.
The Planting of English America
Old World & New
North America in the Early 1600's
England’s Imperial Stirrings
Queen Elizabeth I takes the throne in 1558
Elizabeth Energizes England
Spanish Armada 1588
Importance of the Armada's sinking to England
England’s “surplus population"
The New World was radically altered by European contact
~ In 1600, North America was largely unclaimed & unexplored
Only three different European powers make claims
English at Jamestown
French at Quebec
Spanish at Santa Fe
England colonized America late
First half of 1500s
~ England was Spain’s ally
~ little interest in competing with Spain
(1530s) Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church
~ setting off decades-long religious conflict
His daughter, Queen Mary, would bring England back to the Catholic Church for a time during her reign as monarch.
The Protestant faith became dominant in England
~ This intensified the rivalry with Catholic Spain
~ Ireland became the scene of conflict between England & Spain
~ Catholic Irish wanted independence from England
(1570s-1580s) English troops crushed Irish uprising using extremely brutal tactics
~ English soldiers developed contempt for Irish “savages”
~ This attitude was brought to New World. Indians were also referred to as “savages”
Protestant landlords “planted” on confiscated Irish land (plantations)
Queen Elizabeth (1533- 1603)
~ Powerful & popular queen
~ Encouraged English expansion
~ English pirates
who plundered Spanish treasure ships & settlements
* even though England & Spain were technically at peace
Encouraged by ambitious Queen Elizabeth I
~ Most famous "Seas dog" was
(Later, Sir Francis Drake)
~ Traveled the world
* brought back huge amount of treasure to England stolen from Spanish
King Philip II assembled “Invincible Armada” of ships to invade England
Spanish goals were to...
~ End the Protestant Reformation
~ Take revenge for English raids by "Sea dogs."
The Spanish sailed for England
~ English sea dogs attacked using better ships
* faster, more maneuverable, with better crew
~ The English inflicted heavy damages on the Spanish
~ Then a huge storm
(the “Protestant wind”)
finished off the Spanish
The sinking of most of the Spanish Armada
was the beginning of the end for the Spanish empire
England became the world’s strongest ocean power.
~ Dampened Spain’s fighting spirit
New characteristics of England
~ A strong, unified country
~ Popular monarch
~ Religious unity
~ Strong sense of nationalism
(1604) Peace treaty with the Spanish
* Treaty of London ended 19 years of conflict
~ English land owners enclosed croplands for sheep grazing
~ removed many people from the land
Late 1500s –
~ Depression hit wool industry, putting many people out of work
~ Puritans were strong in these economic areas
Laws of Primogeniture
~ Only eldest sons inherited estates
~ Ambitious younger sons (like Raleigh, Drake) had to seek fortunes elsewhere
England on the Eve of Empire
The stage was now set for English colonization
~ Peace with Spain
~ Population growth
~ Thirst for adventure
~ Joint-stock companies
~ Religious freedom
Virginia was named for the
Queen Elizabeth I
Joint-stock company chartered by
King James I
~ Purpose was to find gold
~ Desire to find a passage through America to the Indies
Few investors thought of long-term colonization
~ Only intended for the company to exist for a few years
~ Investors would then liquidate it for profit
Enormous pressure put on colonists to quickly find riches or risk being abandoned
Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse
~ General mistrust because of different cultures & languages.
~ English raided Indian food supplies during the
(1610-1614) First Anglo-Powhatan War
~ De La Warr
(came in 1610) had orders to make war on the Indians.
~ Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields.
(1614-1622) Peace between Powhatans and the English.
(1614) peace with the marriage of
“He who shall not work - shall not eat.” became the rule of the colony
The Starving Time
In spite of Smith's efforts, Jamestown endured
the “starving time” during the winter of 1609-1610
~ Colonists still died in huge numbers
~ Forced to eat “dogges, Catts, Ratss, and Myce”
Some resorted to cannibalism (digging up corpses or food)
One man killed and ate his wife (and then was executed)
Out of 400 colonist, only 60 survived by 1610
Captain John Smith
In December 1607 Smith was captured and subject to a mock execution by the Indian chief, Powhatan
Pocahontas “saved” Smith in ritual designed to show Smith the power of Powhatan and the desire of the Indians to live in peace
became the intermediary between Indians and
colonists, preserving peace and providing the colonists with food
Make Love, not De La Warr
In 1610, the colonists tried to sail back to England
~ They were met at the mouth of James River by the
relief party headed by
Lord De La Warr
De La Warr
ordered colonists back to Jamestown
~ imposed harsh military discipline
~ took aggressive action against Indians
Disease continued to kill many
(1625) 1,200 people out of 8,000 who had come to Virginia lived
King James I grew hostile to Virginia
~ He hated tobacco
~ He distrusted the House of Burgesses which
he called a seminary of sedition.
(1624) he revoked the charter of the bankrupt Virginia Company
Thus, Virginia became a royal colony, under the King’s direct control
(1685) There were only 2,000 Indians in Virginia (20,000 in 1607)
(1689) The English considered the Powhatan Indians extinct
Gone, but not forgotten
From Indentured Servants to
First Africans come to Jamestown
The Stono Rebellion
Stono Rebellon 1739
~ Over 50 slaves meet at Stono River & begin march to Spanish Florida.
Stole guns & ammo from store at Stono Bridge
~ Killed 2 storekeepers, burned 7 plantations & killed 20 whites –
Number grows to 80 slaves. Militia comes after them –
~ 44 slaves, 20 whites killed in putting down rebellion
~ Captured slaves decapitated –(heads spiked on mile posts to Charleston)
BUT, no slave rebellion ever equals the scale of the rebellion of former servants such as those in Bacon’s Rebellion.
THe Southern Colonies
Maryland Colony created–
Oglethorpe has idealistic regulations for his colony
No more than 50 acres land
(to ensure sobriety)
(to ensure hard work)
Founders disillusioned by 1752 (becomes royal colony)
Settlers began migration into the “back-country”
In some colonies,
~ It was a crime to teach a slave to read or write.
~ Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom.
Popé’s Rebellion in 1680
Pope’s Rebellion (Pueblo Revolt, 1680)
Rebels destroyed all Catholic churches in New Mexico
~ killed hundreds of priests & Spanish settlers; drove out rest
~ Took more than 50 years for Spainish to reclaim New Mexico
Pueblo Indians in New Mexico rebelled
* against Spanish rule and forced Catholic conversion
~ Pueblos destroyed every Catholic church
* killed scores of priests, and hundreds of Spanish settlers
~ Pueblos rebuilt a kiva (ceremonial religious chamber) on ruins at Santa Fe
~ Took nearly 50 years for Spanish to reconquer Pueblos after Popé’s Rebellion
(1716) Spanish settled Texas
~ Weak presence
~ Spanish refugees from Popé’s Rebellion came
* A few missions established