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Ch.11 - Textile Fiber

Chapter 11 - Fashion Design

Molly Stanfield

on 16 December 2015

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Transcript of Ch.11 - Textile Fiber

What are Fibers?
- The basic unit that makes fabric
-Close to a very fine strand of hair
-Fibers are grouped or twisted together to form a continuous strand, called yarn
-Weaving and knitting yarns together create different textiles
-Fiber are classified or grouped by their source of origin
-Natural Fibers - come from natural sources such as plants and animals
-Manufactured Fibers - "test tube" or "man made" fibers, made from such substances as wood pulp, petroleum, natural gas, air and water, also called synthetic
Textile Fiber
Chapter 11
Fashion Design

Fiber Names
-Fibers are also classified by name
-Each fiber has a generic name (cotton, wool, nylon, rayon and polyester)
-A fiber's generic name has to be listed on all textile products
-Trade Name - name of fibers registered as trademarks and protected by law

-Most widely used fiber in the world
-Often combined with other fibers, such as polyester
-Can identify cotton by looking on product labels for the seal of cotton logo
-Cotton comes from the boll or seed pod of the cotton plant
-After seed pods are harvested, cotton fiber is separated from the seeds and processed
-First cotton cloth made in areas known today as Pakistan and northern India
-Alexander the Great introduced cotton to northern Africia in 4th century B.C.
-Nile Valley in Egypt became a center for raising cotton
-Cotton was introduced into Europe during the Crusades
-Spanish conquistadors found fine cotton textiles in Peru, Mexico and southwestern North America
-Cotton is strong, absorbent and comfortable to wear even when its hot
-It does not cling or pill, can be washed on high temperatures with strong detergents and dyes easily
-However, cotton does wrinkle and can shrink, mildews easily, is flammable, is not resilient or elastic
-Cotton can be given a special finish to help in several areas
Fiber Characteristics
-The characteristics of each fiber suit it to a particular fabric, the fabric's appearance and performance depend on the following :
-Strength - tensile strengths (withstand tension)
-Durability - resist wear and decay
-Resiliency - can fabric spring back to shape
Fiber Characteristics Continued
-Elasticity - can fabric return to normal once stretched
-Abrasion Resistance - will fabric pill or wear into
-Wrinkle Resistance - do fabrics wrinkle easily
-Shape Retention - will fabric stretch or shrink
-Luster - also known as sheen, how much light will it reflect
-Absorbency - take in moisture
-Wicking - ability to pull moisture through spaces between the yarns
-Washability - can it be washed or does it have to be dry-cleaned
Natural Fibers
-Come from plant and animal sources
-Cotton, Flax, and Ramie are plant fibers made from cellulose (fibrous substance found in plants)
-Wool and silk are animal fibers made from protein
-Wool comes from sheep
-Silk is spun by silkworms
-Other animal fibers include; cashmere and angora
-All natural fibers, except silk, are staple fibers
-Staple fibers - short fibers measured in inches or centimeters
-Silk is a filament fiber, long fiber measured in yards or meters
-Chart page 199
-Comes from the inside of the stem of the flax plant
-Looks like a bamboo pole under a microscope
-When flax is made into fabric, it is called linen
-Plentiful along Nile River in ancient world
-Egyptians wove it into linen fabric that was light, cool and easy to launder, great for their climate
-Pieces of linen have been found from the Egyptian tombs more than 4,000 years old
-Flax is stronger than cotton and very absorbent, lint-free, dries more quickly than cotton, can be washed, bleached and ironed at high temperatures without scorching
-Soft, versatile and lightweight for a handkerchief, crisp and smooth for a suit or thick and heavy for draperies
-Flax is not very resilient and wrinkles easily
-Often used for garments with a wrinkled or unpressed look
-Sometimes given a wrinkle-resistant finish
-Flax can shrink and be damaged with mildew
-Comes from the fleece of sheep
-Wool from sheep younger than 8 months is called lamb's wool
-The quality of the wool depends on the breed of sheep and the climate where the animal was raised
-Sheep are sheared once or twice a year
-Sumerians learned to make fine woolen cloth over 5,000 years ago, exported wool to other parts of the world
-Romans introduced sheep into Spain in 150 B.C., crossbred them with the African ram = produced merino sheep which are known for their fine wool
-Wool is comfortable, durable, and versatile
-Wool fibers trap air to prevent the loss of body heat, wearing wool makes you feel warm in cold weather
-Wool helps shed raindrops but absorbs moisture from the air or body while still feeling dry
-Wool is resilient, wears well and resists abrasion, flame-resistant
-Wool can be "pure new wool" or "virgin wool" and "recycled wool"

-Silk fiber forms when silkworms spin their cocoons
-The continuous filament can be as long as one mile
-Cocoons are harvested before the silk moths emerge, if the moth breaks through the wall then the filament would be broken
-Silk was produced in China as far back as 2640 B.C., the process for making silk was kept secret for many years, if someone was to reveal the secret they would be subject to torture and death
-Eventually, the secret process was smuggled into Japan via Korea and into the Western countries by monks who hid the silk worms
-Silk is very soft and smooth and provides a superb luster
-Silk is strong but comfortable to wear
-It has elasticity, resists wrinkling, is absorbent and drapes easily
-Can be dyed in brilliant colors and prints
-Fabrics range from lightweight sheers to heavy textures, usually dry-cleaned but some can be hand washed
Other Natural Fibers
-Ramie - has a natural silk-like luster, similar to flax, comes from the stems of China grass grown in Southeast Asia, one of the strongest fibers known, resistant to insects and mildew, has poor elasticity and resiliency, usually combined with other fibers like cotton or flax, used to make sweaters, knitted tops, shirts, placemats and upholstery

-Specialty Animal Fibers - include alpaca, camel hair, cashmere, llama, mohair, and vicuna, mostly comes from animals raised in South America, Turkey, China, Tibet, and other areas of Asia, these fibers are very expensive due to limited availability, similar to those of sheep's wool but are softer, finer and more lustrous, can be used alone or with sheep's wool, used to make sweaters, suits, coats, shawls, blankets, usually dry clean only

-Natural Rubber - made from latex (a milky liquid that comes from rubber trees), used to waterproof coats, hats, boots, gloves and aprons, can also provide elasticity for waistbands (today we use spandex more), backing for rugs and recreational items
Manufactured Fibers
-Artificial fibers were attempted as early as the 1600s, successful attempts did not come until the 1800s
-Today, chemical engineers transform wood pulp and petroleum into many different fibers
-Two types of manufactured fibers: Cellulosic Fibers and Noncellulosic Fibers
-Cellulosic Fibers: rayon, lyocell, acetate and triacetate, produced from wood pulp with minimum chemical steps
-Noncellulosic Fibers: made from carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen molecules, linked together into long chains called polymers
-1910 - The first manufactured fiber was produced in the United States
-Today a total of 26 generic, manufactured fibers have been developed
Making Manufactured Fibers
-Fiber manufacturing begins with a raw material such as cellulose (wood chips) or chemical polymers
-Material is dissolved in a solvent or melted with heat to produce a thick, syrupy liquid
-Liquid solution is extruded or forced through a metal plate with tiny holes similar to a showerhead, each hole forms one fiber, fibers can be thin or thick depending on hole size, also is determined by hole shape (round, oval, or triangular)
-The liquid then hardens into a long filament, some go into a chemical bath to become solid (wet spinning)
-Other filaments go into warm air where solvent evaporates and fibers harden (dry spinning)
-Filaments that have been created by melting with heat are passed through cool air to harden (melt spinning)
-Filaments are then stretched to align molecules and increase strength and elasticity, some are twisted into yarns and stored on spools, others are cut into short lengths for spinning into yarn later
-Can be engineered to be elastic, flame resistant, or luxurious feeling
Specific Manufactured Fibers
- Many manufactured fibers resemble natural fibers but with their own unique characteristics
-Manufactured fibers are commonly used for clothing, furnishings and household items
-Chart page 206-207

-Rayon: first manufactured fiber, cellulosic fiber made primarily from wood pulp, can be combined with most other fibers, rayon is absorbent and comfortable, its soft, drapes easily and has a nice luster, dyes well and can br printed with bright designs, wrinkles easily and can shrink, weak when wet, can have special finishes to help, some are washable but most are dry-clean only

-Polyester: most widely used manufactured fiber, strong, high-performance, can be used alone or blended with other fabrics like cotton, can be woven or knitted for clothing or home furnishings, excellent resilience, outstanding wrinkle resistance, doesn't shrink or stretch, washes easily, dries quick, little or no pressing, retains heat creases/pleats, fiberfill is warm, lightweight and remains fluffy when wet, not very absorbent
Manufactured Fibers Cont.
-Nylon: introduced in 1939 as a "miracle fiber" due to excellent strength, elasticity, and washability, made from petroleum chemicals, first noncellulosic fiber, very strong, lightweight, lustrous, resilient, doesn't stretch or shrink, can be blended with other fibers, very versatile fiber, does not absorb moisture well, collects static electricity, easy to wash, quick to dry, needs little or no pressing, may yellow or gray after a period of time

-Lyocell: newest generic fiber made from wood pulp, strong, good abrasion resistance, shrinks less, breathable, absorbent, generally comfortable to wear, luster and soft drapability, tend to wrinkle, blends well with other fibers like cotton, linen, wool, silk, nylon, rayon and polyester, used in making of expensive garments

-Acrylic and Modacrylic: soft, resilient fiber that resists wrinkling, has high bulking poer and offers warmth without added weight, often substituted for wool, nonallergenic, resist sunlight so great for curtain, draperies and upholstery, can be washed or dry-cleaned, heat-sensitive
Manufactured Fibers Cont.
-Acetate and Triacetate: a cellulosic fiber similar to rayon, absorbent and dries faster than rayon, can be dyed and printed, drapable and silky appearance and feel, resilient and holds creases well, resistant to shrinking, moths and mildew, usually dry-cleaned, heat sensitive, may cling to the body (satin, taffeta and silklike fabrics)

-Olefin and Polyolfin: strong, lightweight, quick drying, good resistance to abrasion, soil, mildew, sunlight, perspiration and odors, used for apparel, home furnishings and disposable items, some wick moisture away from body, keeps body warm and dry

-Spandex and Elastoester: elastic fabrics with excellent stretchability and recovery even after repeated stretching, spandex replaced rubber in clothing because of its resistance to sunlight, perspiration and abrasion, can discolor and lose its stretchability

-PLA (Polylactic Acid): first produced in 2002, materials made from natural sugars of corn or sugar beets, similar to cotton, biodegradable, drapable, absorbs moisture, wicks moisture, low flammability, activewear and home
Manufactured Fibers Cont.
-Aramid: exceptional strength, heat and flame resistance, maintain shape and form even at very high temps, resistant to abrasion, often used to make the protective clothing worn by firefighters
-How does a person know what fibers are what? Some can be identified by sight or touch. Some must be tested. Chart page 210.
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