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Ben Isaak

on 22 March 2015

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Transcript of Sports

Labour Exploitation
Use of Workers for Mega-Events
and Manzenreiter 2006)
build stadiums
update/build new infrastructure
airports, roads, railways

Infrastructure for events only

Abuse of Workers
(Rowe 2003)
poor conditions
unsafe working conditions
modern 'slave labour' (forced labour)
little pay and withholding pay
denial of survival necessities
resulting in several deaths
Perceived Benefits
Raise of profile for city/country
Upgraded infrastructure

Large forecasted raise in the economy, for example the World Cup in South Africa increased the economy by $6 Billion

Increased jobs:
London Olympics: 50,000 to 60,000 new jobs (Pettinger, 2012)
South Africa World Cup: 129,000 new jobs

Economy raised after event due to perceived profile of the city during the broadcasting of the event-lead to increased tourism (Horne and Manzenreiter 2006)

Tourism - Large increase in spending during the event
3.7 million tourists to 2014 World Cup
$3 million in spending
Labor exploitation at FIFA World Cup Events
Mega-Sports: Exploitation of Labour and Human Rights Violations

Mega sporting events, such as the World Cup and the Olympics, convey social and financial benefits for national citizens, the hosting country, sports fans, and sporting corporations, however labor exploitation and the abuse of human rights of migrant workers and labourers have negative impacts that outweigh the suggested positives.
Promotion mechanisms of mega-sports: advertising, marketing, tourism appeal, songs, and youtube videos

These ads work to instill a sense of patriotism, dedication, and commitment in fans

Fans then feel entitled to watch these sporting events or cheer for teams

Large corporations pay for advertisements during the Olympics to increase their revenue...

Sporting Industry Definition
The sport industry is a market in which people, activities, business, and organizations involved in
facilitating, promoting
, or
any activity, experience, or business enterprise
focused on sports
The sporting industry has appealed to the general public by providing a sense of patriotism, pride, and unity for their country's teams.

Mega-sports are such a major part of culture and entertainment that many do not question how the massive stadiums are built and operated.

Through further research we have come to believe that, although the sporting industry is presented as positive, there are many negative consequences it holds in international margins.
Marketing and Promotion
Although a country may want to host a sporting mega-event for reasons of national pride or economic benefits, if a country has to violate human rights in order to do so, these events are not worth having.They only continue to happen because of the international attention they draw and the amount of money they make for a few individuals. If this type of exploitation has a chance of being fixed, then consumers of these sporting events need to start caring.
Stirton, Brent
Stirton, Brent
Non-academic Sources
Stirton, B. (2012). People & Power: Sochi 2014 Olympics
(Photograph). Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/people-and-power-2014-sochi-olympics
citizens catch the "fever" (EPRSAUTHOR, 2014)
Sense of community
pick up the sport
sense of patriotism and pride for sports fans

Mega sports are used as a means to 'brand' the country and build the nation/ unite the nation (Horne and Manzenreiter 2006)
Misarahi, T., & Benchenaa, S. (2013, January 7). Mega sporting events: In whose interest? Retrieved March 3, 2015.
Pettinger, T. (2012, January 24). Advantages of Hosting A Major Event. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
Pattisson, P. (2013). Revealed: Qatar’s World Cup ‘slaves’. The Guardian, 25.
Promotional Tools
Official song of the 2010 FIFA World Cup held in South Africa
19,000 families were displaced in Brazil for 2014 World Cup (Misarahi and Benchenaa 2013)

Characteristics of labour exploitation (Pattisson 2013)
widespread corruption (Dunbar 2015)
retained salaries
abuse of workers
unsafe working conditions
forced to work long hours, without pay
no legal protection, arrested when leave site

Qatar's World Cup' slaves'
Works dying at a rate of 1 person per day
Overcrowded accommodations, exposed to sewage
Days without running water
Employers often withhold their passports making migrant workers unable to return home
Managers assaulting labourers
Many die from cardiac arrest or workplace accidents

Shakira. (2010, June 4). Waka Waka (This Time for Africa) (The Official 2010 FIFA World Cup™ Song)
[Video file]. Retrieved from:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRpeEdMmmQ
This video has had over 814 million views
A prime example of the impact of promotional tools
Siegfried, J. & Zimbalist A. (2006). The Economic Impact of Sports Facilities, Teams, and Mega-Events. The Australian Economic
Review, 39(4), 420-427.
Della Davey- Introduction (the Olympic rings)

Aristotle Barboutsis- Perceived benefits

Sarah de Kroon - Promotion, corporate and capital gains, and exploitation

Raid Naji- Qatar World Cup

Kitty Carr - Olympics

Ben Isaak - Conclusion and use of sources
There were two main types of sources we used in our presentation. The first are those that examine mega-events on the more theoretical level and allow us to establish ideas that support our thesis. These sources tend to be articles in academic journals. Academic articles are supportive for this thesis. Research, statistics, and results directly relating to the capital benefits, infrastructure, and economic impact are well researched and presented. Economic benefits and social benefits are solid supportive points as these areas have extensive research studies. Economic benefits of mega sporting events are evaluated, confounding factors are controlled for, and research methods are effective. The case studies presented in these academic articles are crucial for our analysis. These case studies evaluate the conditions of labourers within the sporting industry. The extensive research and general consensus on these articles with also help to strengthen our argument.

The second is the sources that discuss specific events and use statistics to support their claims. These were mostly reports from NGO's. Non-government organizations, specifically Human Rights Watch, will be crucial for this analysis. This organization provides details into misuse and exploitation of labourers and parallels the gains of larger corporations or countries. This information is very focused on the specific exploitation of workers and the ignorance of governments and companies. This ignorance stems from a want for capital gain. Human Rights Watch has an obligation to report on these issues and conducts research regarding an inequality in human rights. This crucial information will develop the argument regarding misuse and abuse of workers. The data is accurate and the source is credible.
Use of Sources
Olympic Games
The Olympics are "one of the best ways for cities to enhance their world image" (Broudehoux 2007).

Profile of a Migrant Worker
poor working conditions
withheld wages, minimal rights
denied legal contracts, no medical insurance
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
- 6 new structures = $4 billion USD
- billions of dollars spent to reconstruct roads
- migrant workers were paid $4.87/day
Sochi 2014 Olympic Games
- costs more than $50 billion USD
- most expensive Olympic Games
- 70,000 workers
- migrant worker's passports were confiscated
- inadequate housing, unsafe machinery, deaths of migrant workers

Shakira. (2010, June 4). Waka Waka (This Time for Africa) (The Official 2010 FIFA World Cup Song)
[Video file]. Retrieved from:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRpeEdMmmQ
What's the point?
Many venues - abandoned, no upkeep
Waste of resources

Athens Olympics (Kissoudi 2008)
11 billion euros
Too expensive to maintain
structures lay in ruin
wasted labour

Broudehoux, A. M. (2007). Spectacular Beijing: The Conspicious
Construction of an Olympic Metropolis.
Journal of Urban Affairs, 29
(4). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
Kissoudi, P. (2008). The Athens Olympics: optimistic legacies–post-Olympic assets and the struggle for their realization. The International
Journal of the History of Sport, 25(14), 1972-1990.
Academic sources
Why exploit labourers and violate human rights for a sporting event and infrastructure that is not maintained?
Images retrieved from:http://www.theguardian.com/sport/gallery/2014/aug/13/abandoned-athens-olympic-2004-venues-10-years-on-in-pictures
Image retrieved from: http://blog.cvsflags.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Olympic-World-Flags.jpg
Broudehoux, A. M. (2007). Spectacular Beijing: The Conspicious Construction of an Olympic Metropolis.
Journal of
Urban Affairs, 29
(4). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
Sochi Olympic World Flags [Online image]. (2014). Retrieved March 10, 2015
from http://blog.cvsflags.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Olympic-World-Flags.jpg
Image retrieved from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dondomingo/846053315/
Migrant Workers at Beijing's Olympic Stadium [Online image]. (2007).
Retrieved March 10, 2015 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/dondomingo/846053315/
Muller, Martin. (2014). Introduction: Winter Olympics 2014: What is at stake?.
East European Politics 30
(2), 153-57.
Image retrieved from: http://www.rferl.org/content/sochi-olympics-official-bilalov-poisoned/24972133.html
The construction of facilities for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi [Online
image]. (2013). Retrieved March 10, 2015 from http://www.rferl.org/content/sochi-olympics-official-bilalov-poisoned/24972133.html
Human Rights Watch (2013 April). Russia's Olympian Abuses.
Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/russias-olympian-abuses
Human Rights Watch (2008, March). China: Beijing's Migrant Construction Wokers Abused. Retireved from http://
Burgan, B., & Mules, T. (1992). Economic impact of sporting events. Annals of tourism research, 19(4), 700-710.
Matheson, V. A., & Baade R. A. (2005). Mega sporting events in developing nations:Playing the way to prosperity?. South African Journal of Economics
72(5), 1085-96. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
Horne, J., & Manzenreiter, W. (2006). An introduction to the sociology of sports megaevents1. The Sociological Review, 54(s2), 1-24.
Rowe, D. (2003). Sport and the repudiation of the global. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 38(3), 281-294.
Most expensive Olympics in History: Sochi 2014 [Online image]. (2013). Retreived March
17, 2015 from http://rt.com/business/sochi-cost-record-history-404/

European Parliamentary Research Service. (2014, June
12). The legacies of major sports events. Retrieved March 10, 2015, from http://epthinktank.eu/2014/06/12/legacy_of_sports_mega-events/


Perceived benefits

Marketing and promotion
Capital Payday

Labour exploitation
FIFA world cup

What is the point?

Final remarks
Mega- sports
Mega sports, according to Roche, are best understood as ‘large-scale cultural (including commercial and
) events, which have a dramatic character, mass popular appeal and international significance (2000:1).
Roche, M. (2000) Mega-events and modernity London: Routledge.
Top FIFA sponsors who 'cash in' on this mega sporting event...
Horne, J., & Manzenreiter, W. (2006). An introduction to the sociology of
sports megaevents1. The Sociological Review, 54(s2), 1-24.
Perceptions and promotion of sports at a national level...
Profit and Corporation
Corporate Pay Days from mega sporting events...
FIFA recorded revenues of $2 billion
FIFA spent $39.7 million on executive and management bonuses
FIFA gave $35 million to winning German Federation
(Dunbar 2015)
IOC had profits of $5 billion, $3.9 billion of which came from television income
IOC earns $1 billion from Top sponsors: Coca-Cola, McDonalds
(Mamudi 2012)
Top sponsors of the Olympics receive tax breaks, and stand to make large profits from these endorsements
The Reality of Mega Events....

Its all about profits for major corporations

More promotion =more profits
Migrant workers and labourers are being exploited, abused, and dying so these corporations can generate a profit
The Reality
Who is exploited for these mega sports?
Labour exploitation examples...
The IOC earns money from endorsements, sponsorships and television ads for and during the Olympic Games. The more sponsors and fans watching the Olympics, the greater their profit.
Perceived Benefits
Beijing Olympics - Migrant construction workers (Humans Right Watch 2008)
Sochi Olympics - Sochi residents and migrant workers (HRW 2014)
Qatar World Cup - Nepalese migrant workers, migrant workers of other nationalities (The Guardian)
Many of these workers are coming to construct these large mega structures in order to provide for their families. These labourers are from poor backgrounds, have little supporting funds, and are in need of work
These hosting countries exploit these characteristics of these workers to recruit them to build their infrastructure
Pattisson, P. (2013). Revealed: Qatar’s World Cup ‘slaves’. The Guardian, 25.
All information retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/26/qatar-world-cup-slaves-fifa-uk
"We were working on an empty stomach for 24 hours; 12 hours' work and then no food all night..." (Pattisson 2013)
"Almost all migrant workers have huge debts from Nepal, to pay recruitment agents for their jobs. The obligation to repay these debts, combined with the non-payment of wages, confiscation of documents and inability of workers to leave their place of work, constitute forced labour" (Pattisson 2013)
Pattisson, P. (2013). Revealed: Qatar’s World Cup ‘slaves’. The Guardian, 25.
Pattisson, P. (2013). Revealed: Qatar’s World Cup ‘slaves’. The Guardian, 25.
Economic benefits are the prime motive for hosting a mega event (Horne and Manzenreiter 2006)
“[We] workers ended up with less than 20 Yuan (US$2.67) per day, and on top of that we’d be deducted eight Yuan (US$1.07) per day for living costs; how are workers supposed to survive [on such low wages]?”
Human Rights Watch (2008, March). China: Beijing's Migrant Construction Wokers Abused. Retireved from http://
Sports are used as a form of social regeneration (Horne and Manzenreiter 2006)
"Socially it has been viewed as a tool for the development of urban communities, and the reduction of social exclusion and crime"(Horne and Manzenreiter 2006)
“Every day [the work schedule] was different, there was no unified, fixed work [schedule], regardless if it was daytime or late at night, anytime was a work time, [and] sometimes in the middle of the night when we were sleeping, we would have to get up [and work].”
Human Rights Watch (2008, March). China: Beijing's Migrant Construction Wokers Abused. Retireved from http://
“The Chinese government is all talk and no action when it comes to delivering meaningful protection and social services for migrant construction workers,” said Sophie Richardson, Asia advocacy director at Human Rights Watch. “Despite years of government rhetoric, employers still cheat migrant construction workers of hard-earned wages. And when it comes to basic social services, the government still discriminates against migrants.”
Human Rights Watch (2008, March). China: Beijing's Migrant Construction Wokers Abused. Retireved
from http://www.hrw.org/news/2008/03/11/china-beijing-s-migrant-construction-workers-abused
Human Rights Watch (2013 April). Russia's Olympian Abuses.
Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/russias-olympian-abuses
Vinter, Robyn (2014, May 16). This graph shows the sickening extent of the Qatar World Cup
London Loves Business
. Retreived from: http://www.londonlovesbusiness.com/business-news/london-2012-olympics/this-graph-shows-the-sickening-extent-of-the-qatar-world-cup-deaths/8120.article
Retreived from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport_industry
Dunbar (2015). "FIFA Banks $2B in 2014; World Cup Turns $337M Total Profit." The Big Story. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
Mamudi (2015). "IOC's Four-year Haul: $5 Billion." The Margin RSS. N.p., 2012. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
These sponsors benefit from sales due to advertisments during the mega events
Broadcasting of the Mega Events
The television and media attention of these events encourage tourism to these areas (Rowe 2003)

Sponsors pay FIFA and Olympics to run their ads

Broadcasting increases national support and patriotism for these events (Rowe 2003)

TV broadcasting rights generate profit
for the country and organization hosting
the event (Barget and Gouguet 2010)
Barget, E., & Gougout, J. J. (2010). Hosting Mega-Sporting Events: Which Decision-Making Rule?. International Journal of Sport
Finance, 5(2), 141-162.
The general conception of the Games:
If the current death rate continues, 4000 deaths are predicted by the commencement of the 2022 Qatar world cup (Vinter 2014)
Full transcript