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Dana V

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of Fracking

Fracking, or fracturing, is a process
in which natural gases are harvested. What is Fracking? We have ultimately decided that fracking is not worth the cost. The way that we are using to harvest the natural gas right now, it's too dangerous to frack. Unless, we could find a way to use non-toxic chemicals or make it any less dangerous to do. In that way I think that a middle ground could be reached on this subject. Natural gas would be a great energy source, if we could harvest it in a way that was more environmentally friendly. Fracking allows us to extract natural gas from shale rock deep in the earth. The reason that this is so relevant is because natural gas is so much better for the environment than the other fossil fuels that we currently use are.

According to current carbon dioxide emission levels given by the Energy Information Administration, natural gas emits roughly 44 pounds less carbon dioxide per MWh. But, even though the hydrocarbon that we're talking about is cleaner than other fossil fuels, the way that we harvest it is not. The Process Firstly, water, sand, and additives are mixed together, the pumped down a well at a high pressure. The mixture then flows through sections of the well into the surrounding earth, cracking it while carrying sand or propants, a material that will keep the crack open. The sand and propants are left in the ground to keep the cracks open. Plugs are removed from the well which causes the well’s pressure to reduced during the flow-back process, leaving the sand to prop open the cracks and allow natural gas and oil to flow. 4. The water is properly disposed of or treated and re-used in the next hydraulic fracturing operation. How does natural gas produce energy? Natural gas is mostly composed of methane, which is a hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbons are molecules that are composed of only hydrogen and carbon. Most hydrocarbons, including methane, are very flammable. So, to get energy from natural gas, we ignite it, normally in a combustion turbine which generates electricity. Hydrogen atom Some of the Chemicals used in Fracking Dioxane/C4H8O2- This chemical is used in surftacants, and can cause damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidneys.

Butoxyethanol/C4H9OCH2CH2OH- This chemical is a product stabilizer, and can cause haemolysis, and damage to spleen, liver and bone marrow.

Ethylene/C2H4- This chemical is a gelling agent, and can affect kidney function as well as the nervous system, lungs and heart. Contaminates Water Quality and Supply

Increases Ozone and Smog Levels

Destroys and Fragments Wildlife Habitats Fracking causes several problems for the community as well. One incident that has been reported several times in homes where fracking is performed nearby is that a dangerous amount of methane is found in the houses. Along with that, the natural gas sometimes can get into
a home's water supply, making their water unsafe, and even flammable. Effects of Fracking on Communities. Michigan Natural Gas Reserves and Fracking Development In Our Area Covalent & Ionic Compounds Ionic Compounds are compounds that are made by ions that are bonded by oppositely charged electrons. Covalent Compounds are compounds that are made by electrons that are equal, which is called a nonpolar bond. As where a polar bond occurs when an electron is more attracted to one atom than the other. How to draw Hydrocarbons To figure out what a specific hydrocarbon looks like, you need to first find out how many hydrogen and carbon atoms are in it. Take methane, or natural gas for an example. We know that a methane atom only has one hydrogen, and four carbons surrounding it. So we would put the hydrogen atom in the middle, with the carbon atoms surrounding it. How to Name Hydrocarbons 2,3 Methylpentane Octyne Ethene 1: methyl-
2: eth-
3: prop-
4: but-
5: pent-
6: hex-
7: hept-
8: oct-
9: non-
10: dec- The prefix shows how
many hydrogen atoms there are The suffix shows how many bonds
there are between each atom If it is a single bond, then use -ane
If it has a double bond, then use -ene
If it has a triple bond then use -yne Examples: Why are they flammable? Carbon atom
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