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Senior Modern History - Study of Conflict: Origins of the Cold War
Transcript of Senior Modern History - Study of Conflict: Origins of the Cold War
Significant Events of the Cold War
The significant events and closure of the Cold War
BACKGROUNDS, CHANGES & CONTINUITY:
What started the Cold War?
How perfect is our society?
How could we make it better?
What makes a perfect society?
QUESTIONNAIRE: Exploring the 'Dream'!
1. On a rating of 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest) how confident are you about future peace and prosperity ?
2. Rank the following in terms of future threats to world peace and prosperity
Shortages of resources – oil, water, food
Global economic collapse
3. Do you think our society is becoming less safe / more safe?
4. Do you expect to have the same , higher or lower living standards compared to your parents?
5. What benefits do you think technology will bring to society in the future?
What is the 'Australian Dream'?
The Australian Dream is attainable for all
Extension: Attitudinal scale justification
SONG: Ideologies AUTHOR: Billy Bragg (released 1986 - during the final decade of the Cold War)
Have the lyrics open in another window and follow along in order to deduce what the message is.
Animals and Ideologies: A metaphorical explanation
1) How accurately do you believe the website represents/portray each ideology? weblink: http://www-formal.stanford.edu/selene/cows.html
Ideologies on the Right:
Resist social and political change and react against reforms in order to return to previous social order.
Believe the state has a limited role to play in deciding people’s economic situation; rather, they support the right of private individuals to make profits or to lose money as the free market dictates. Individual rights outweigh the interests of the society as a whole. Governments should not interfere with the right of private businesses or private individuals to pursue the creation of wealth, so taxes should be lower and government services should be far fewer, eg essential services, defence etc. However this can leave employees and the disadvantaged vulnerable to exploitation. Also, some extreme right-wing regimes exercise as much state control over their citizens as extreme left wing ones.
Generally (but not always) stand by traditional social and moral standards and resist alternative lifestyles.
The established spectrum of left and right is inadequate to categorise the multiplicity of views and approaches to the family, the environment, the economy, cultural diversity or the meaning of life. No one ever claimed that this simple model – which had its roots in whether one supports the orthodoxy (right) or wants to reform it (left) – would ever prove a reliable universal system of classification. What is ‘orthodox’ has always been changing: yesterday’s radical ideas are today’s conservatism. Anyway, most people and political parties are reformist on some issues and conservative on others; few are left or right on every front.
Government elected by the people and accountable to the public.
Universal suffrage ( adult right to vote)
Belief in associated human rights… freedom of speech, assembly,legal rights, etc.
Separation of judiciary, executive and legislature
Political parties and parliament
These political ideologies evolved over the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries in England,France, Germany and US. They are now widespread.
stresses the rights and freedoms of the individual particularly from the state. Believes in small government.
: generally believes in maintaining the traditional social order, based on class, traditional values and suspicious of change.
DEMOCRACY, LIBERALISM AND CONSERVATISM
Ideologies on the Left:
Favour enforced means of achieving social and political change to improve the lives of ordinary people.
Believe the state (government) has a significant role to play in ensuring social fairness - eg redistribution of wealth from the rich to the poor (usually through taxation which takes money from the wealthy to use on state provided services such as social welfare, education, health, etc.). In extreme cases, the state will take over ownership of resources (farms, mines, businesses etc) to ensure this redistribution of wealth. The interests of society as a whole are seen as more important than those of a few individuals.
Generally (but not always) are less inclined to enforce traditional thinking on social and moral issues and are more likely to actively support racial and sexual equality and religious tolerance. However, more extreme leftist governments may be less tolerant and may enforce extremely restrictive laws on social and moral behaviour which limit individuality.
Modern politics uses the terms “left” and “right” to describe political ideologies
This comes from the days of the French Revolution in the late 19th century when the revolutionary members of parliament sat on the left of the chamber, and the aristocrats and the clergy sat on the right.
Therefore, radicals (or those advocating change) are called left-wingers and conservatives (those who seek to maintain the status quo) are called right-wingers. However, many right-wingers can be extremely radical, if they seek to change perceived left-wing values in an existing society. Similarly, left-wingers can be seen as conservative if they resist change which would further improve their society.
These terms today are a combination of economic and social attitudes.
Modern Ideologies and the Political Spectrum –
Where do you sit?
Extreme ideology of the Right, associated with the ideas of Benito Mussolini (Italy) and Adolf Hitler ( Germany)
Opposed to Communism
Characterised by one-party rule, suppression of opposition, control of the media, strong military support
Belief in private enterprise but absolute control by the State
Nazism – particular beliefs associated with Hitler,anti-semitic,nationalistic, Aryan ethnic superiority,expansionist
FASCISM and NAZISM
An economic ideology based on the belief in the benefits associated with
- Private ownership of productive resources ( industry/ capital)
- Pursuit of private profits and self interest
- Freedom of the market and the individual businesses
- Some limited Government intervention to prevent any undesirable excesses
The first industrialised counties ( England, Germany, France, US) were capitalist economies. Most counties in the world today are capitalist.
Influential Economic theorists include
Adam Smith( An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations ; 1776)
John Maynard Keynes ( General Theory of Employment 1926)
An ideology which favours government control over the economy in order to bring about greater equality throughout society. Some degree of private ownership is provided for under a classless system.
Socialist societies have emerged either through Revolution or through democratic elections ( democratic socialism)
Many countries have embraced such socialist ideals as,
Free (public) education
Free (public) healthcare
Government operated industries ( eg, electricity,water, transport)
Progressive taxation income
GENERAL BELIEFS OF COMMUNISM:
Marx believed that ECONOMIC FORCES determined the course of history
History is based on the CONFLICT between those who owned wealth ( and therefore power) and those who had no wealth/power
Pharaohs and Slaves
Lords and Serfs ( Feudalism)
Business owners(Bourgeoisie) and workers (Proletariat)
The most stable society is based on mutual sharing of wealth (Communism)
A ideal classless society based on community ownership of resources, industry and wealth
Such a society is opposed to private ownership of the means of production
( and is therefore opposed to Capitalism)
Marx’s ideas were later reinterpreted by Communist leaders such as Lenin and Stalin ( Russia/ USSR), and MaoZedong (China) to suit their own societies.
Marxism inspired many REVOLUTIONS and Independence movements ( USSR,China, Cuba, Vietnam, North Korea, Latin America….)
An ideology of the extreme Left largely based on the writings of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
The Communist Manifesto ( 1848) laid the foundations for Communist thought.
What is ideology?
A system of ideas or beliefs which allows people to make sense of their social reality
POWER OF IDEAS:
An ideology involves (ingredients):
-Some conception of history
-A set of values and moral views
-A social theory which can be applied
-A conception of the best form of future society and how to achieve it
-An understanding of the role of government and politics
1. What is an 'ideology'?
2. And, how do they shape our world?
K: Know what an ideology is in general, and the differing types.
U: Understand how Ideologies shape our world
S: Defining, identifying, deducing, explaining, and debating
Was the Cold War Ideological?
K: Know the sentiments of the superpowers after WWII
U: Understand the causes of the Cold War
S: Deducing, Analysing, Evaluating, Reflecting
In May 1945 American and Soviet troops celebrated a joint victory over Nazi Germany in Berlin.
Three years later these former allies were pitted against each other in an era of frosty relations, espionage, rivalry and conflict that became known as the 'COLD WAR', which would later define a generation.
But what were the ideological differences between these two 'superpowers'?
T:P:S:D ACTIVITY - Create a nation
Choose a nation name and set up a policy position on the following:
How & why do your political positions differ?
Which is better CAPITALISM or COMMUNISM?
Find another partner with similar judgements.
In pairs, come up with ideas to support your judgements ready for a debate over whether capitalism is better than communism.
Exploring an alternative:
Read page 147 of text (Inquiry 1) and explain in a paragraph:
1) Karl Marx's vision, and...
2) whether he achieved his vision
Scales out of 10?
Source D: A speech by US President Truman (1947)
One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.
The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.
SOURCE G: Historian's depiction of the Cold War
The 'Cold War' was a mixture of religious crusade in favour of one ideology or the other, and of the most ruthless power politics, striking out for advantage or expansion not only in Europe but all over the world.
PJ Larkin, European History for Certificate Classes (1965) A student examination revision book.
SOURCE H: University of Ulster (Britain) Lecturer Donette Murray's reasoning for causes of the Cold War
The common concerns that had united the former allies (namely the fight against fascism and Nazi Germany) disappeared leaving only two radically different political, social, economic and ideological systems.
onette Murray, To What Extent was the Cold War a Struggle between Irreconcilable Ideologies? (1999)
The Soviet Union was a Communist country, which was ruled by a dictator and put the needs of the state ahead of personal human rights.
The USA was a capitalist democracy which valued freedom and feared Communism.
It was not just that the two ideologies were conflicting - they were militant and expansionist. They both believed that the alternative ideology was a threat to their own way of life, and that the only way for the world to be happy was for their particular ideology to take over the world. This mixture of ideological fear and aggression meant that in both America and Russia, their beliefs invaded and affected their foreign policies.
Stalin wanted huge reparations from Germany, and a ‘buffer’ of friendly states to protect the USSR from being invaded again.
Britain and the USA wanted to protect democracy, and help Germany to recover. They were worried that large areas of eastern Europe were falling under Soviet control.
This meant that the 'Big Three' found it difficult to get agreement at the Conferences (Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam) which outlined the principles of the post-war peace.
SOURCE F: Recollections by former British PM (1940-45 & 1951-55) Sir Winston Churchill
The moment was apt for business, so I said, "Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions and agents there. Don't let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty-fifty about Yugoslavia?"
(in Triumph & Tragedy, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1953)
Read page 151 of text (Inquiry 1) and timeline the dates mentioned (one dot point only per date)
Let's consult some more evidence...
President Truman's Inaugural Address in 1949 when he talked about the difference between DEMOCRACY and COMMUNISM. Consider the language he uses
Now, a little narrative...
WHAT THEY BELIEVED ('ideologies')
Can DESCRIBE the state of the world after WWII, the ideologies of the superpowers, and the cause of the Cold War.
Can REMEMBER who the superpowers were after WWII and what they basically believed in.
The Yalta & Potsdam Conferences
When was the Yalta Conference?
What did Stalin/Churchill/FDR want?
What was decided?
When was the Potsdam Conference?
What did Stalin/Atlee/Truman want?
What was decided?
Yalta Conference - February 1945
TASKS: Digging Deeper
1) Read the following section of text making notes in your journal on the Yalta & Potsdam Conferences, Truman Doctrine (policy of containment) and the Marshall Plan.
2) Add all terms with the 'Five Ds' to your 'Definitions' page your journal
3) Think of a metaphor to explain the relationship between the Truman doctrine and the Marshall Plan and add it to your notes (you may prefer an illustration)
4) Also, complete the mapping activity to demonstrate your understanding of the geographical divide between rival alliances that shared and differed in ideologies - NATO vs WARSAW PACT.
Use primary and secondary evidence to EXPLAIN the relationship between nations after WWII, their political ideologies and the causes of the Cold War.
Find a partner (preferably with opposing views) and discuss:
Know some of the significant events of the Cold War
Understand the Geo-political interrelationship between and the ideological causes of these events.
Synthesizing, listing, evaluating information,
Can explain the relationship between significant Cold War events in terms of their causal factors using evidence properly evaluated. And can describe the events that lead to the end of the Cold War, which heralded a New World Order.
can explain the causes of significant Cold War events dealt with in this section and the events that led to the end of the Cold War.
Can list the significant Cold War events dealt with here and explain what happened at the end of the Cold War.
SOURCE- Crash Course History: the Cold War
Answer the following Questions whilst watching the video:
1) How is Joseph Stalin characterized in the video?
2) What was 'MAD'? And, how do you think this might actually prevent nuclear war?
3) What were the 2 times the world came closest to nuclear war?
4) What were the 'hot' wars mentioned in the video?
5) List the countries where both sides (US & USSR) interfered politically as a means of preventing the opposing ideology.
6) How was Soviet policy under communism described in this video? Could this be a biased perspective?
7)According to this video, why DIDN'T Soviet socialism prove to be a viable alternative to industrial capitalism?
8) Finally, who can be attributed to ending the Cold War? And explain what the economic policies 'Perestroika' (restructuring) and 'Glasnost' (openness).
Conclusions to the Cold War (46min each)
Now, read pp. 158-160 of Inquiry 1 and highlight in one colour any
(agreeing) information in your responses to the questions before and in another colour highlight any
information (does not agree).
Corroborate & Contrast!
Interview with a president!
Write an interview screen play with Mikhail Gorbachev or Ronald Reagan that demonstrates your understanding of the final stages of the Cold War. Include reference to events you have studied here. Consider 'perspective' when writing this!
You might want to conduct further research if necessary. YOU CAN PRESENT IT TO THE CLASS LATER!
BBC - GCSE Bitesize: End of the Cold War
Open another tab with the link below and navigate through the activity:
Fog of War:
- Cuban Crisis (first 20min)
-Vietnam War (from 46min-1.44min)
Pearl Jam covering Bob Dylan's 1962 song 'Masters of War'.
- 'Military Industry Complex'
6. If you were able to vote recent elections what would be your number one concern:
Future jobs ( employment)
Spending on education
Better health care and social services
7.What has the older generation left you as a legacy for your future?
8. In the future do you expect to :
own your own house?
Own a car?
Have a full time job?
( This is sometimes known as the “Australian/ American Dream” )
9. Do you think a young person growing up in the 1950’s/60’s might have had different answers? Explain why ( ie,what could have influenced their answers?).
2) What is the message in Source 1? Use lyrics to support your response.
3) Where is there evidence in the lyric to support the view that the author is a socialist?
4) What can we deduce from this about whether all westerners (British, Australian, American) supported capitalism throughout the Cold War? And, how might this cause capitalist governments to act?
Aspect of Inquiry: DEFINITIONS
Ideologies of the 20th century:
– examples: Russia (former USSR), China, North Korea, Cuba
– examples: US,Western Europe, Japan, Australia
Fascism and Nazism
– examples: WWII Italy and Germany
(Modern contemporary ideologies:
Copy this spectrum into your notes and add the following definitions (paraphrased) under each political ideology
link to text document scan:
In simple terms:
: one party state vs multi-party state & why?
: Strict limits on Human Rights vs fewer limits on human rights
: wealth evenly distributed (less rich & fewer poor) vs uneven distribution of wealth (more poor)
: government run economy (government owns the means of production - factories, farms, mines, shops, etc.) vs free-market economy (farms, factories, shops, mines etc. are owned privately)
: media is owned by the government (censorship of newspapers, film, radio, TV) vs media owned by private companies and individuals (newspapers, books & publishing, TV, film, radio)
Political ideology/philosophy spectrum noted with explanations of each ideology & understood
Ideological position taken and explained in notes on the make up of society
Participation in debate over whether capitalism is 'better' than communism
Music in History: British socialist musician Billy Bragg's 'Ideology', released in 1986 - in the last decade of the Cold War.
During the Cold War (1945-1989), society in the 'East' (U.S.S.R) and 'West' (U.S.A) was governed and structured very differently. The following document gives a condensed snapshot of the contrast between both superpowers, thus giving insight into some of the reasons why tensions existed between these superpowers competing to demonstrate which IDEOLOGY was superior and should be used as a model for other countries around the world:
Focus on chronology
Download the document, read through comparing past reality to your own conceptions during the last activity. Then, add the document to your notes for this section
CHECK YOUR LEARNING
What were the sentiments of political leaders in the 'West' (US & Britain) and the 'East' (USSR) after WWII?
1) What can we learn about the cause of the Cold War from these secondary sources?
2) Are there any concerns over the reliability of this information?
DOCUMENT SCAN: https://www.dropbox.com/s/bguga0r04nh4iwl/Truman-Marshall.pdf
2. ACCOMPANYING TEXT RESOURCE - https://www.dropbox.com/s/13wwwmasn4r2rxt/Map_CW_Europe.pdf
check your learning
From whose perspective have these cartoons been drawn? How do you know?
SOURCES A & B
Taken at Yalta, the photo shows Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin (left to right). What impression does this convey about the relationship of the leaders?
1. Compared with the photo taken at Yalta, what impression does this photograph of the 'Big 3' at Potsdam on 7 May 1945 create?
2. Probably on the day this photograph was taken, Truman received notification that at the test centre in New Mexico the US had successfully exploded the world's first atomic bomb, and that Churchill had been defeated by Clement Attlee in the British elections. How might this hav influenced or affected the way in which he negotiated with the other leaders?
Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' speech
Task: beginning research
In a research table, begin recording your notes, reflections/deductions and evaluations for this 'backgrounds...' focus question.
INTERESTS & ARGUMENTS:
How did the YALTA and POTSDAM conferences influence the beginning of the Cold War?
Copy and paste image to notes
Copy and paste image to notes for analysis
"When we hang the capitalists they will sell us the rope we use"
Joseph Stalin - Soviet leader from the mid 1920s until his death in 1953
We Marxists believe that revolution will occur in other countries as well. . . . Export of revolution is nonsense . . . to assert that we desire to bring about revolution in other countries by interfering with their way of life is to speak of something that does not exist, and which we have never preached.
JOSEPH STALIN in an interview with MR. HOWARD, March 1st, 1936
SOURCES F & G:
How was Germany divided and governed after WWII?
Copy and paste these maps into your 'Backgrounds' notes and explain what problems might arise from this arrangement
"Mr Churchill has called for a war on the USSR"
Stalin writing in the Russian newspaper 'Pravda' on 13 March 1946
"... the Cold War had set in. Churchill had given his speech in Fulton urging the imperialistic forces of the world to fight the Soviet Union. Our relations with England, France and the USA were ruined."
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, writing in 1971. In 1946 he was a member of the Soviet government
1. Explain why Churchill's speech was a turning point in the history of the Cold War
2. Do you think Churchill caused the Cold War?
Potsdam Conference - July 17- August 2, 1945
While you watch the video, find answers to below questions and add to your notes...
Total 17 minutes (watch sections until you can address the consideration)
Click on the document link below and
Fear & suspicion mongering language
whether the USSR was justified in its desire for territory in post WWII Europe.
Analysis of the 1946 Churchill speech 'Sinews of Peace' in Fulton, USA.: