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Transcript of Cosmetics Chemistry
would pull out a chemistry set, open the containers, and slap compounds on their faces. But believe it or not, that's essentially what you're doing when you put makeup on. Behind the glamorous world of cosmetics, there's some serious science. Cosmetic products are made up of many things. The basic classes for ingredients of makeup are: - Coloring Agents/ Colorants
- Bulking Agents/ Fillers
- Additives Coloring Agents/ Colorants ~ Inorganic pigments - natural mined or synthetic Iron oxides ( red, brown, black, and yellow, can be blended to any shade)
- Chromium oxide ( green)
- Ultramarines (blue violet or pink shades)
- Titanium dioxides (white pigment that can blend with iron oxides to get any color, as well as skin tones) ~ Organic pigments ( commonly used for lipsticks and eyeshadows) - AZO colorants (basis for red and yellow colors)
-Triarylmethane (basis for blue and green colors)
-Xanthenes (staining dye that provides red and orange colors
- Natural colorants such as beet powder from plants and carmine, a crimson pigment made from the ground-up, dried bodies of a cacti-eating bug called the cochineal insect. Coloring Agents/ Colorants (continued) ~ Coal tar colorants are the most common pigments used
~Coal tar is a sticky, black liquid produced by heating a kind of coal, called bituminous coal, in large ovens from which air is absent. Coal tar colors are formed from ring-shaped carbon- and hydrogen-containing compounds called aromatic hydrocarbons, which are purified from coal tar.
~ They require the most safety testing due to regulations of the FDA , because the same chemicals caused cancer when they were injected in mice Besides from creating colors, another challenge for makeup chemists is to make sure the makeup sticks to the face for hours and hours, through tears, perspiration, eating, and more. This is where bases come in. Bases - bases are in every makeup
- oily waxy mixtures
- hold the product together in a cake or tube
- helps color cling to the face
- Each type of makeup has a different base, depending
on what it needs Bases (continued) Lipstick Bases: - half the weight of a lipstick is a thick insoluble mixture of waxes and oils
- beeswax, carnauba wax (exudate from pores of Brazilian wax palm tree ), and candelilla wax (from candelilla plant produced in Mexico)
- olive oil, mineral oil, castor oil, cocoa butter, lanolin, and petroleum
- more than 50% of lipsticks in U.S use castor oil
- oil and wax has to be balanced, oil makes the lipstick viscous so color clings to lips and waxes are thixotropic so lipstick retains shape and doesn't smear or melt in heat
- Esters are slippery chemical compounds formed by reactions between alcohols and acids, added to make the lipstick shine and to make sure it glides on smoothly Mascara Bases: - Like lipstick, mascara relies on heavy bases
- paraffin and carnauba palm wax
- heavy bases are needed to keep lash darkening pigments stuck to the eyelashes through water and tears as well as thicken and separate the lashes Eyeshadow, blush, and other powdery products are bound together by lighter base, because they don't have to worry about makeup dissoloing liquids. Bases (continued) Foundation Bases: - most bases used for face foundations are composed of water and mineral oil
- ^any mixture of the two is called an emulsion (see vocabulary) Additional ingredients that fall into the base category include isopropyl lanolate, also referred to as wool alcohol; myristyl lactate; and octyl hydroxystearate. These are oillike, nontoxic compounds called fatty esters. The greasy compounds in bases cause relatively few allergic reactions, but do clog skin pores and result in acne. Bulking Agents/ Fillers Bulking agents and fillers extend main pigments to allow even coverage. - most common bulking agent is talc, a natural compound powder made from the mineral magnesium silicate
- it is very absorbent (absorbs perspiration)
- has smooth, slippery texture that makes cosmetics easier to apply Mica (potassium aluminum silicate) is also a filler, and is a bit more translucent than Talc. More exotic bulking agents are being added to products.
~silk powder in eye shadow
~ nylon and silk fibers in mascara Lipstick Base Some kind of wax some kind of oil The final class of major makeup ingredients is additives. Additives include fragrances and preservatives. Fragrances: ~ used to add a pleasing scent and hide the unappealing odor of some waxes, oils, and other makeup components
~ more than one third of allergic reactions to cosmetics were triggered by fragrance additives Preservatives: ~Preservatives that kill microbes are the second major type of additive in makeup
~Many bacteria and other microorganisms reproduce rapidly in moist, warm solutions
~Without preservatives, mascara, foundation, and other makeup may become an ideal culture medium for harmful microbes
~most common preservatives in makeup are the parabens
~paraben family includes butylparaben, ethylparaben, and methylparaben ( rarely allergenic)
~preservatives called quarternium-I5, formaldehyde, and sorbic acid are the source of many allergic reactions
~ A separate class of chemical preservatives called antioxidants, which are listed on product labels as butylated hydroxyamisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are added to prevent ingredients from combining with oxygen, a process called oxidation that can ruin makeup's color or texture. Extra Vocabulary :) Emulsifiers change the properties of ingredients so one of them can become microscopic droplets inside the other.
This is helpful for ingredients like wax, oil, and water that are hard to mix. The resulting mixture is called an emulsion. Most creams and lotions are emulsions. Oils are are usually emollients, meaning that they moisturize and soften the skin. Butters are another kind of emollient. Agar, also known as algae, carageenan, laminaria, ulva lactuca, and ascophyllum, contains protein and several vitamins. It’s usually added to moisturizers as an emollient or antioxidant. Titanium dioxide is used to thicken and lighten cosmetics like foundation, blush, and eye shadow. It’s also a sunscreen, protecting against both UVA and UVB rays without causing irritation to skin. Sources - http://chemistscorner.com/ingredients-a-makeup-chemist-should-know/
- http://www.howstuffworks.com/the-chemistry-of-cosmetics-info.htm Thanks