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EFFECTIVE GRAMMAR TWO

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Augusto Casablanca

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of EFFECTIVE GRAMMAR TWO

PRASAL VERBS
What are phrasal verbs? Tell your partner.
Separable and Inseparable Phrasal Verbs
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH SUBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS
EFFECTIVE
GRAMMAR 2

A Phrasal Verb is
a verb
that is formed by
a verb
plus a
particle
.
*Remember that the meaning of the original verb changes:
1.
Look
! There is a snake!
2. I always
look after
my young brother.
What other phrasal verbs do you know? Tell your partner.
Match these verbs with their meanings:
1. Come back
2. Figure out
3. Find out
4. Take away
- Remove
- Discover
- Return
- Understand
Now, in pairs come up with a sentence using each verb.
PHRASAL VERBS
Transitive
Intransitive
Separable
Inseparable
(THEY TAKE AN OBJECT)
(THEY DON'T TAKE AN OBJECT)
You can separate the verb and the particle.
You can't separate the verb and the particle.
SEPARABLE
1. They
tore down
the house.
2. They
tore
the house
down
.
3. They
tore
it
down
.
4. They
tore down
it.
INSEPARABLE
2. I
ran into
her at the store.
1. I
ran into
Maggie at the store.
Intransitive
verbs are always inseparable because they have no object:
After trying a lot, he
gave up
.
Do you remember when do we separate them and when we don't?
SEPARABLE TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS
Most transitive phrasal verbs can be
separated
, which means that the object can go
after
the particle or
between
the verb and the particle.
- I took of my shoes.
- I took my shoes off
- I took them off.
When the noun is long we usually don't separate it.
- I took
the coat that my mom gave me on my birthday
off.
- I took off
the coat that my mom gave me on my birthday
.
INSEPARABLE TRANSITIVE VERBS
Some verbs are inseparable which means that the pronoun or object pronoun always go after the particle.
-I wish I could
get out of
this place!
A small group of transitive phrasal verbs must
always
be separated as a rule.
- Katty wants to
talk
Brann
into
marriage.
- When I arrived home, I
came across
a sleeping cat in my bed!
Some transitive Phrasal verbs are used in combination with
prepositions.
I was sleeping but my brother Saul
woke
me
up
.
He had plans. His friend Andres had
asked
him
over
. Saul was
looking forward to
a sleepover at Andres’s house and wanted me to take him.

Andres wanted to
show off
his new and expensive Play Station 4 which his parents bought for him.
When we
got to
Andres’s house, Saul
pointed out
a problem – big scary dogs.
He spoke sweetly and
talked
them
into
leaving Andres’s front door. Finally, he could
go in
and have fun!
Write a short narration using at least six different phrasal verbs.
We have basically four
Subject Relative Pronouns
:
- I love those dogs
that
have a big head.
- My friend
whose
car is red will help you.
- Lima,
which
is a capital city, is growing a lot.
- Manuel is a boy
who
has suffered a lot.
We use
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES with SUBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS
to
identify
or
give additional information
about
nouns
. (People, places or things)
These sentences are usually seen as a
combination of two
sentences:
- I love those dogs. They have a big head.
- Lima is a capital city. It is growing a lot.
Manuel is a boy. He has suffered a lot.
- My friend will help you. He has a red car.

SUBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS FOR:
PEOPLE:
PLACES OR THINGS:
POSSESSIONS:
WHO
THAT
I have a friend
who
works at Icpna.
I have a friend
that
works at Icpna.
(informal)
WHICH
THAT
Arequipa is a city
which
has many attractions.
Arequipa is a city
that
has many attractions.
WHOSE
My friend
whose
wife is Brazilian is moving to Madrid, Spain.
SINGULAR AND PLURALS
-Patricia is my friend
who
works
in Cuzco.

-Patricia and Pedro are my friends
who
work
in Cuzco.
WHEN DO WE USE COMMAS IN THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES?
IDENTIFYING
NON-IDENTIFYING
(No commas)
(Commas)
It identifies which
member of a group
the sentence talks about.
-
I have many dogs.
My dog
that is white
eats a lot.
-
I have many friends.
My friend
who lives in Russia
doesn't speak English.
It just
gives additional information
about the noun.
- I have a pet. My turtle
,
which
I bought two years ago,
loves lettuce.
- The doctor
,
who
graduated from San Marcos,
was really kind.
"My friend who studies in Japan is nice."
"My friend
,
who studies in Japan
,
is nice."
(I have many friends that study.)
)
( I have a friend and I want to add extra info about him.)
Brann is a teacher.
+
He
works in Germany.
Brann
,
who
works in Germany,
is a teacher.
Relative Pronouns can be the subject of an adjective clause.
They can also be objects of an adjective clause.
Brann is a teacher.
+ I hate
him
.
Brann
,
who
I hate,
is a teacher.
REMEMBER:
There are two types of Adjective Clauses:
Identifying
Non-Identifying
I've seen many movies.
The
movie
which I saw yesterday
was great.
I've seen many movies.
This
movie,
which I saw yesterday
, was great.
I've seen many movies.
The
movie
which I saw yesterday
was great.
(Identifying)
I've seen many movies. The movie I saw yesterday was great.
I've seen many movies. This movie
, which I saw yesterday,
was great.
(Non-identifying)
I've seen many movies. This movie, I saw yesterday, was great.
Object Relative Pronouns for:
PEOPLE:
THINGS:
POSSESSIONS:
PLACES:
TIME:
-That's the girl
whom
I love.
-That's the girl
who
I love.
-That's the girl
that
I love.
-That's the girl
()
I love.
FORMAL
INFORMAL
-I broke the glass
which
she bought.
-I broke the glass
that
she bought.
-I broke the glass
()
she bought.
FORMAL
INFORMAL
-He is the guy
whose
wife I met yesterday.
-That's the city
where
I was born.
- I remember the time
when
I saw a ghost.
- I remember the time
that
I saw a ghost.
- I remember the time
()
I saw a ghost.
1. What are the two first things that you do when you arrive to your house after a long day?
(Use two different phrasal verbs)
2. How can you lose weight quickly?
(Use two different phrasal verbs)
3. From your point of view, what is the main difference between a friend and a best friend?
(Use an adjective clause with a relative pronoun)
4. Where were you born?
(Use the relative object pronoun WHERE)
5. What can you tell me about Mario Vargas Llosa?
(Use the relative pronoun WHOSE)
First, I sit down in front of the TV and turn it on. Next, I take off my shoes and relax until I fall asleep.
To lose weight quickly, you should try to work out every morning.
You should also get into the habit of eating more vegetables.
In my opinion, a friend is someone who shares good experiences with you.
On the other hand, a best friend is someone with whom you share your deepest secrets.
I was born in Cuzco.
Cuzco is a city where you can find beautiful old houses and a wonderful and well-known main square.
Mario Vargas Llosa, whose novels have been awarded countless of times, is a famous writer from Arequipa, Peru.
He won the Nobel Prize in Literature some years ago.
SPECULATION ABOUT THE PAST
You're almost
sure
.
You're
not
very
sure
You think it was
impossible
(Express disbelief)
Situation: You see a girl and a her boyfriend arguing. She slaps his face and runs away crying. .
He
must have
cheated
on her.
She
must have
felt
really bad.
He
must have
thought
she'd never find out.
Situation: You enter the classroom and see a boy crying.
He
could have
gotten
a bad grade on the exam.
He
may have
received
very bad news.
He
might have
failed
the course.

Situation: Someone killed Maria's husband
Maria
couldn't have
killed
her own husband because she loved him so much.
She
couldn't have
committed
the crime because she was abroad when the crime happened.
MUST HAVE
is similar to
HAD TO HAVE:
Juan didn't come to my party.
He must have forgotten.
or
He had to have forgotten.
*Don't use the negative form of had to have. Use only musn't have
A
speculation
is a guess.
We express speculations or
possible explanations
about many
past situations
. These speculations are usually
based on facts and information
we have.
What is a speculation about the past?
+
Should
Ought to
Might
Could
+
+
HAVE
I might have gone to the party.
PAST PARTICIPLE
Advisability about the Past
We use some modals to talk about actions and states that were
good ideas in the past
but
didn't happen
. They express
regret and blame
.
Yesterday night, there was a party and I didn't go because I was tired.
The girl I like went and she danced and kissed a guy all night.
I
should have gone
to the party!
I got a zero in the exam. I didn't study enough. I was watching TV the whole week instead of studying. I
could've studied
but I didn't. :(
WHAT DOES
REGRET
MEAN?
What is GEOGRAPHY?
Have you ever studied Geography in School? Did you enjoy it?
Is it an important subject? Why?
THE PASSIVE VOICE
Use the Passive Voice to focus on the object of a sentence rather than the subject.
Juan writes beautiful poems.
Beautiful poems are written by Juan
Subject
Verb
Object
New Subject (Object)
Verb (Passive Form)
Agent (Subject)
PASSIVE VOICE
=
BE
+
PAST PARTICIPLE
(TRANSITIVE VERB)
-Martha
sings
a nice song
-A nice song
is

sung
by Martha.
-Martha
sang
a nice song
-A nice song
was

sung
by Martha
-Martha
has sung
a nice song.
-A nice song
has been

sung
by Martha.
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