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Microscope Project

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by

Natalie Levandoski

on 28 September 2012

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Transcript of Microscope Project

All about it The Microscope The Parts of a Microscope http://www.scsastro.co.uk/userfiles/image/shop/347.jpg Sites Sites http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/physics/microscopes/timeline/ Revolving Nose Piece Objective lenses Stage Clips Stage Diaphragm Illuminator Base Fine Adjustment Knob Course Adjustment Knob Arm Eyepiece Sites http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/physics/microscopes/timeline/ http://www.365astronomy.com/images/Konus-Academy-1000x-Microscope-5304.jpg http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventions/a/microscopes.htm
http://www.microscope-microscope.org/basic/microscope-history.htm HISTORY OF A MICROSCOPE by Natalie and Natalia The first record to use lenses to manipulate images started way back to some Greek and Roman writings from 1000 A.D. They would experiment with the lenses. Yet it is difficult to find when these lenses were used to look at minute things. As time went on, simple microscopes were made, but it is really impossible to know who really created the first microscope. Yet it is known that they magifiying glasses only had one power, usually 6X or 10X, and were many times used to see tiny bugs or other small things. These early microscopes were many times called “flea glasses.” But credit for the first compound microscope, or one with two or more lenses, is usually given to Zacharias Jansen and John Lipperhey of the Netherlands, in 1590. After hearing of this new invention an Italian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, Galileo Galilei, started experimenting himself. He was able to describe principles or lenses and light rays, and improved the microscope, adding a focusing device. Then in 1665, and English physicts Robert Hooke, glanced at a sliver of cork through some microscope lens and saw some “pores” or “cells” Anthony Leewenhoek improved the microscope even more; he was able to see blood cells, bacteria, yeast, and more things more things that had never been seen before. He has even been called “Father of Microscopy” Then in about 1830, Joseph Jackson reduced the “chromatic effect” by showing that a few weak lenses put together at certain distances gave good magniification without blurring the image. In 1903, Richard Zsigmondy developed the ultramicroscope that could study objects below the wavelength of light. Ernst Ruska co-invented the electron microscope , which depended on electrons rather than light to see and object. Finally, in 1981, Gerd Benning and Heinrich Fohrer invented the most powerful microscope to date, the scanning tunneling microscope, which shows three-dimensional images, way down to the atomic level. They were given the Nobel Prize in physics in 1986. History of the microscope http://uk.ask.com/question/what-is-the-difference-between-an-electron-microscope-and-a-light-microscope Differences between a light
and micron microscope? http://www.differencebetween.net/object/differencebetween-optical-and-electron-microscope/ cost about $100 lenses are made of glass maximum magnification
power of 1,000 deliver a more blurried
image Light Microscope Micron Microscope was made in the 17th century cost thousands of dollars were made in the 20th century deliver a more clear and
detailed image lenses are electrostatic
or electromagnetic radiation source are photons,
or light maximum magnification power of 1,000,000 radiation source are electrons http://www.preservearticles.com/201101102998/difference-between-light-microscope-and-electron-microscope.html
http://utahscience.oremjr.alpine.k12.ut.us/sciber00/7th/cells/sciber/micrpart.htm
http://www.microscope-microscope.org/basic/microscope-parts.htm
blackwellpublishing.com
Mr. Jacob's teachings Field of view is how much you see when you look through a microscope, and magnification is how many times bigger an object is. How do they relate to each other? Well as the FOV decreases magnification increases, and visa versa. Because if you can see really little of an object, you will see lots of detail. If magnification increases by 100 then the FOV is 100 times smaller, and vice versa. When you are increasing the magnification on the microscope you want to put the object at the end of the pointer so you don't lose it when the FOV gets smaller. Magnification and Field of View How to calculate the total magnification? Eyepiece x objective lens = total magnification 10 x 10 = 100x 1000 1500 Romans and
Greeks use
lenses to manipulate
images In 1981, Gerd Benning
and Heinrich Fohrer invented
the most powerful microscope
-the scanning tunneling microscope,
which shows three-dimensional
images, way down to the
atomic level, and were
given the Nobel Prize in physics in
1986. 10 x 4 = 40x In 1903, Richard Zsigmondy
created the ultramicroscope
that could study objects under
the wavelength of light In1665, an English
physicist Robert Hooke
glanced at a sliver of cork
through some microscopes
lens and saw "pores" or "cells" Then in 1830, Joseph Jackson
reduced the "chromatic effect" by
showing that a few weak lenses
placed together at certain
distances gave good magnification Ernst Ruska co-invented the
electron , which depended on
electrons rather than light to
see the object in 1931 with Max
Knoll Credit for the first compound
microscope is given to Zacharias
Jansen and John Lipperhey of
Netherlands, in1590. Italian philosopher, mathematician,
astronomer, and physicist Galileo Galilei
depicted principles of lenses and light rays,
and improved the microscope adding a
focusing device Anthony Leewenhoek improved
the microscope even more; he was
able to see blood cells, bacteria, yeast,
and things never seen before. He has
even been called the Father of
microscopy. The bottom
used for support the light source flat surface that
holds the slides clips on stage to hold
slides in place disk under the stage
used to vary light holds the objective
lenses the lenses usually come
in 4X, 10X, and 40X You look through this This holds the microscope together
and you carry the microscope by this is used to focus the image is used to sharpen the image
after the coarse focus has
been used. SO FIRST, YOU HAVE TO KNOW THE DIAMETER OF THE FOV. IF NOT ALREADY, CONVERT THE DIAMETER TO MICROMETERS. THEN LOOK AT THE OBJECT AND DECIDE ABOUT HOW MANY TIMES IT FITS ACROSS THE FIELD OF VIEW. NOW DIVIDE THE DIAMETER BY THE NUMBER OF TIMES IT FIT ACROSS. THAT WOULD GIVE YOU THE SIZE OF THE OBJECT. NOW IF YOU WANTED TO KNOW THE SIZE OF THE OBJECT IN REAL LIFE, JUST MULTIPLY THE SIZE OF IT AND THE MAGNIFICATION. HOW DO YOU ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF AN
OBJECT WHEN USING A MICROSCOPE? were made in the 20th century was made in the 29th century The difference between electron
microscope and light microscope Drawing of newspaper letter under microscope Difference between electron
microscope and light microscope Electron Microscope Light microscope Difference between the light
and electron microscope Light Microscope Electron Microscope usually in color radiation source is light lens are made of glass not affected by magnetic field maximum magnification is 1500-2000 usually in black and white lens are electromagnetic maximum magnification can reach 1,000,000 radiation source are electrons affected by magnetic field usually bring a more blurred image usually gives a more detailed
and clear image easier to maintain and not as
expensive are much more
expensive and harder to maintain 10 x 40 = 400x
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