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ASL/English Bilingual Classroom

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Margaret Jennings

on 6 October 2012

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Transcript of ASL/English Bilingual Classroom

Deaf Learners are Bilingual ASL/Bilingual Classroom Bilingual Persons
...use two or more languages in their everyday lives.
...use their languages for different purposes,
in different settings, with different people. What is Bilingualism Deaf People as Bilinguals How Deaf Learners Become Bilingual How You Can Help in the Classroom Fractional vs. Wholistic View of Bilinguals Two monolinguals in one person Relationship between two languages is ignored Bilinguals almost never view
their langauge competencies
as adequate Vocabulary from fractional view:
- unbalanced
- semilingual RSD's AEBPD Program Stephen Nover The bilingual person:
...language use depends on situation, topic, etc.
... language fluency varies in situations and with people. Vocabulary from wholisitc view:
- abilities
- communicative competence Balanced bilingual = mastery of two languages is roughly equivalent
Covert bilingual = someone who hides knowledge of another language because of an attitudinal disposition
Dominant bilingual = greater proficiency in one of the two languages
Early bilingual = someone who acquired both languages in childhood
Late bilingual = someone who became bilingual later than childhood
Receptive bilingual = someone who understands, but does not read or write
Secondary bilingual = someone whose second language had been added to a first via instruction
Incipient bilingual = someone at the early stages of bilingualism Bilingualism is
…not a state, but a process;
…not a goal, but a continuum. Language Proficiency Deaf vs. Hearing Bilinguals Bilinguals
- demonstrate different levels of fluency
in each language and each language situation.
- are unique. Bilinguals have
more self-acceptance
and better self -image. No code switching or borrowing occurs.
The Bilinguals use only ONE language. Grosjean’s Situational Continuum Monolingual mode Bilingual Mode Code switching and borrowing
happens naturally. “…the ability to use language
correctly and appropriately
to accomplish communication goals.”

Put another way: knowing what to say,
how to say it, when to say it, and to whom. Communicative Competence Deaf individuals become bilinguals in different ways:
* Signed language to Print literacy
* Spoken language to Signed language
* Signed language to Spoken language Why do deaf children need to be bilingual?
* Complete access to langauge as early as possible
* Communicate through natural language with family
and with the surrounding world
* Develop cognitive abilities
* Acquire world knowledge
* Acculturate into two worlds Signed language triggers
the human language capacity of deaf children. Main Goals of Bilingual Education of the Deaf
*Enable deaf children to become linguistically competent
*Provide access to age-appropriate curriculum and grade-level material
*Facilitate deaf children’s development of literacy skills
*Provide deaf students with a positive sense of themselves and their own identity Seven Principles for Effective Language Learning
1. Learning goes from whole to part
2. Lessons should be learner-centered
3. Lessons should have meaning and purpose for learners
4. Learning takes place in social interaction
5. Lessons should include all four modes
6. Lessons should support students' first languages and cultures
7. Faith in the learner expands student potential Six Principles for Successfully Educating Deaf Bilinguals
1. Language models in ASL/English
2. World Knowledge
3. Valuing approximations in both ASL/English
4. ASL as the natural language for deaf children
5. Promoting metalinguistic awareness and knowledge in ASL/English
6. Involvement of parents in literary development of deaf children Activity: Pair up and discuss
your deaf education experience.
Then come up with one sign
to summarize your experience. Activity: As a group, list
similarities and differences
of hearing and deaf bilinguals. "Children learn language,
they learn through language, and
they learn about language.”
Freeman and Freeman Activity:
How can we make lessons
more accessible
for our deaf learners? Making lessons more comprehensive:
Sign/speak clearly and naturally
Write key ideas/concepts
SmartBoard, charts
Frequent comprehension checks
Allow students to work in groups/pairs
Keep assignments SHORT Ideas for building world knowledge:
Teachable moments
Read alouds
YouTube Ask questions to students:
What do we know about ....?
What do we wonder about ....?
How can we find out about ....? Greater divergent and creative thinking:
* fluency
* flexibility
* originality
* elaboration
* greater number of associations
* greater communicative sensitivity The goal of teaching must be to supply understandable input to the learner.
The teacher delivers information that is understandable by the learner,
but just very slightly beyond their current competence (+1).
The input is NOT over simplified.
The input IS real life communication.
Language fluency emerges gradually. Intake: the inner assimilation of the second language
Input does not automatically become intake.
Intake is an inner process.
Intake is ultimately the goal. Two Types of Language Proficiency
* Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) - Conversational Langauge
* Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) - Academic Language Communicative Langauge Functions
*Requesting Information/ Assistance
*Giving Information/ Assistance
*Expressing Feelings Academic Language Functions
*Seeking *Information/Informing
*Justifying and Persuading
*Solving Problems
*Evaluating Natural Order of language Acquisition
1. Social ASL to Academic ASL to Social English to Academic English
2. Social ASL to Social English to Academic ASL to Academic English
3. Social English to Social ASL to Academic English to Academic ASL Chinese Proverb:
Tell me and I forget.
Show me and I remember.
Involve me and I understand. Paraphrasing often Language flourishes best in a language-rich environment; provide good language models during social interaction Your Role in the Classroom:
Increase language practice opportunities
Improve quantity and quality of “student talk”
Help individualize instruction
Motivate learners
Cultural interaction and understanding
Promote a positive and motivating climate Students need chances to talk and listen,
as well as read and write every day
by embedding all learning
in a rich verbal and nonverbal context. Let them struggle -
don’t take over tasks or projects
because it's faster. Signacy, Literacy, Oracy Signacy Fluency in a signed language including
both receptive and expressive skills Fluency in a written language Fluency in a spoken language * Develop students' ASL abilities as a function of their thinking abilities * Promote personal and social development by developing students' knowledge and use of ASL
* Develop proficiency as well as enjoyment in signing, watching, and viewing
* Develop the ability to appreciate and respond to a range of signed information and presentations from electronic media, including ASL literature Viewing refers to the receptive ability to view attentively
and analytically, comprehend and interpret
the “visual information” of a signed language
(e.g., ASL) presented from various electronic media
(e.g., videotape, television, DVD, CD-ROM) Activity: Come up with a sign
for rolling. You must come up
with a new sign. Activity:
Watch "Mountain Dew" and identify parts
that some of our students may not understand. Oracy * Listening - use of hearing to understand spoken English
* Lipreading/speechreading - use of vision (paired with or without hearing) to watch the movements of the face, lips, tongue, and body, and to use information provided by the situation/context and language
* Speaking – use of spoken language to communicate in various situations and for various purposes
* Mouthing – use of lips to mouth (i.e., without voicing) words and/or sentences to communicate in various situations and for various purposes Students have opportunities in the classroom to use and discuss spoken language with their peers. Students have opportunities to take risks and try out spoken language while interacting with their peers “Language use is tailored to
individual needs whenever possible.”
- Sharon Graney Literacy Literacy develops from:
* Life experience
* World knowledge
* Cultural knowledge
* Structure of language
* Written conventions
* Written symbols
* Spelling to sound rules
* Recognition of common orthographic patterns Knowledge of the world (specific, general and cultural)
has direct relation to a reader’s vocabulary size,
be it spoken, signed or written. Thus, world knowledge needs to expanded in all modalities. Activity:
Read your book and come up
with a variety of signs for
the repeated phrases. Fingerspell, fingerspell, fingerspell! Chaining
Example: Teacher fingerspells a word,
immediately points to the same word in print,
then signs the word, and explains its meaning. Fractional View Wholistic View You are SuperHeroes! Activity:
For whole to part instruction:
Put activities in the order
from whole to part. Go forth and spread the word/sign.
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