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Music Therapy Prezi

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Maeve White

on 14 May 2016

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Transcript of Music Therapy Prezi

DEPRESSION
Music Therapy
Autism
Alzheimers and Dementia
CANCER CARE
Social interaction
Communication
The presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours.
People with Autism present with a range of impairments in 3 main areas:
Music Therapy provides an alternative medium to encourage communication and interaction.
Communication:
Behaviour
Social Interaction
Cognitive & Motor Skills
Benefits of Music Therapy
Structure
People with Autism respond to structure.

Music with its melody, harmony, rhythm, phrasing and dynamics provides this structure.

Provides structure in everyday life.
Can aid during times of transition.
Parkinson's Disease

Speech and Communication

Cognition

Motor Control

Behavior and Mood
What does therapy involve?
Instruments
Singing
Composition
Song Writing
Listening
Movement
Aims of Music Therapy:
But where's the evidence?
Pacchetti et. al (2000)
"MT is effective on motor, affective, and behavioral functions"
The findings suggest that music therapy and music medicine interventions may have a beneficial effect on anxiety, pain, mood, quality of life, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in cancer patients.

Bradt J, Dileo C, Grocke D, Magill L. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD006911. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006911.pub2.
It helps people with cancer to cope with side effects such as :
Pain
Anxiety
Depression
Sickness
Music therapy can be a safe place for people to explore fear, anxiety and anger. Some studies show that music therapy can help children with cancer to cope, by encouraging them to cooperate and communicate.
Research has looked at music therapy for :
People having chemotherapy
People having radiotherapy
Physical and psychological help for people with cancer
People at the end of life
Cancer pain
Children and young people
Music Therapy on Cancer Patient
Music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients.
Something to Sing about
Evidence
"An analysis of music therapy program goals and outcomes for clients with diagnoses on the autism spectrum."
Kaplan RS, Steele AL. (2005)
Training in Music Therapy:
Ireland
Two year full time MA programe in limerick
International student intake.
Experience sought at auditions
Fieldwork, placements.
Qualified to the practice independently
No professional registration available in Ireland for those who wish to practice
Learning Difficulties / Intellectual Impairment:
Encourage learning and improve attention and memory skills
Mental and sensory stimulation
Improve cognitive skills
“Music Therapy focuses on possibility, not disability and encourages engagement through sensory stimulation. This results in participation, involvement, movement, and the release of the inner expressive self.”
-Music Therapy Ireland
Hearing impairments:
Music therapy for those with hearing impairments is focused on areas closely related to communication such as:
Auditory training
Speech production
Language development

Behaviorial Difficulties:
Improves attention span
Reduces tendencies to be easily distracted
Promotes self-confidence and self-image
Minimize hyperactivity
Facilitates expression
Promotes relaxation
Physically disabled:
Motor skills
Co-ordination
Sense of rhythm
Pain management

Verbal disabilities:
Improves vocabulary and sentence structure
Expression of speech
Help with hesitant speech
Music therapy can be adapted to suit the specific needs of patients:
Linguistic and verbal
Logical development and sequencing
Spatial and visual perception
Kinesthetic and body movement
Social intelligences
Music enhances multiple intelligences…
"Education designed for students who-because of sensory, physical or intellectual disabilities, or for some other reason-require special teaching or equipment" (Elkin, 1990)

The first step in integrating music therapy in special education is to learn as much about the individual child and their specific needs as possible.
Music therapy in Special Education
Physical development
Emotional development
Intellectual development
Social development
Creative development
Music influences all aspects of development…
Special Needs
A study documenting the progress in eliciting vocal responses in subjects with a severe and profound mental handicap, published in the Journal of Music Therapy, reports a significant difference in the number of utterances from these individuals in response to music.
Music Therapy - How it Works
Long Term Care for Alzheimer's Patients
Music Therapy and Behaviour
Music and Memory
Behavioural and Pyschological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD)

Distress for Patient, family and carer.

Study- 39 participants with severe AD

MT caused short term parasympathetic dominance – reduces stress

Greater long-term reduction in BPSD was observed in those who received the interactive intervention therapy.

Improved Cognitive and emotional response- may be used to improve the individual’s relationship with others and improve QOL
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3605862/
Comparing the effects of different individualized music interventions for elderly individuals with severe dementia – Mayumi Sakamoto et al
Mediated my release of neurotransmitters and neurohormones
Norepinephrine and Epinephrine increased after 4 weeks, returned to pre therapy levels at 6 weeks
Prolactin and Serotonin levels unchanged after 4 weeks and 6 weeks
Melatonin increased significantly after and at 6 weeks follow up-> Increased Melatonin may have contributed to patients’ relaxed and calm mood
Music therapy increases serum melatonin levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease.Kumar AM, Tims F, Cruess DG, Mintzer MJ, Ironson G, Loewenstein D, Cattan R, Fernandez JB, Eisdorfer C,Kumar MAlternative Therapies in Health and Medicine [1999, 5(6):49-57]
Case Study - LTC residents, particularly those with Alzheimer's and Dementia, can benefit from music therapy when learning to adjust to a new environment

Feelings of Anxiety, Withdrawal, Depression and memory difficulties already associated to condition are exacerbated

Subject in this case study exhibited these feelings

Music Therapy enabled him to improve quality of life in LCT and enhance relationships in this setting
Using music therapy to help a client with Alzheimer's disease adapt to long-term carePaulette Kydd, BMT, MTA, ARCTSunnyside Home, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada
Alzheimer's and Dementia


Much evidence exists to suggest that music is a powerful memory aid – eg musical mneumonics.

Study – Patients with alzheimers remember sung lyrics more than spoken lyrics. However, healthy adults showed no such benefit with the music.

This may be the case because:
Stimuli including music creates a more robust brain association than the spoken word
Music calms the individual, therefore the are more attentive and thus retain more information
'… an evidence based profession in which university-qualified practitioners use music in planned and effective ways to achieve clinical outcomes in domains such as learning, coping, development and participation.'

- Dr. Jane Edwards
What is Music Therapy?
What do Music Therapists Do?
Assess the client and their needs.

Design music sessions based on client needs.

Participate in multidisciplinary treatment planning, ongoing evaluation, and follow up.
History of MT
Applications of MT
MT in Ireland
Future Potentials of MT
Our Presentation
Music as a Memory Enhancer in patients with Alzheimers Disease
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2914108/
Music Therapy as an Alternative to HRT
As an individual ages sex hormone levels decrease – Estrogen in females, Testosterone in males.

Co-related to other symptoms of old age - decreasing cognitive function, memory disturbance and depression.

HRT is a treatment used to counteract the effects of this but it is not applicable to all AD patients - It may have Increased risk of breast cancer in women and increased risk of prostate cancer in males.

Recent research shows that music is closely associated with these hormones - MT can be used to create the same benefits of HRT without the side-effects.

Correlation between Testosterone and music ability.
Music listening increases testosterone.

Study – Hormone levels checked before and after MT and differences were compared.

Conclusion – MT is more unlikely to cause any of the adverse effects that HRT may cause and therefore has potential to become an alternative to HRT
Efficacy of Music Therapy for Treatment in Patients with Alzheimers Disease
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3463939/
What's happening?
Sadness
CLINICAL DEPRESSION?
DSM defines criteria as a checklist

-Depressed mood most of the day
-Loss of interest in most activites
-Feelings of worthlessness
OR
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
2009 Systematic Review
-"Music therapy for Depression": Comparing music therapy with standard care
SMALL
ONLY 5 STUDIES INCLUDED
Low methodological quality.....
NOT ENOUGH!

N = 79
Clear clinical theories- "improvisational, psychodynamic music therapy"
HIGH QUALITY RESULTS
Individual Music Therapy for Depression:
randomised control trial
Erkkilä 2011
The author concluded that music therapy was an effective treatment for depression.

The experimental group showed greater improvements in:
DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS
ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
Services and Training
National Association for Music Therapy founded in 1950.

Since then, numerous organisations and boards of accreditation have been established.


Willem van de Wall - 'Music in Institutions' (1936).

Pressure for a college curriculum mounting - E. Thayer Gaston

First tertiary programmes become available in the 1940s.
‘Music Physically Considered’ published unsigned in The Columbian Magazine, 1789.

Early proponents include Edwin Atlee, Samuel Matthews. Both students of Dr. Benjamin Rush.

1800s saw first recorded systematic music therapy experiments and healing interventions.

National Society of Musical Therapeutics (1903).

Such societies produced the first journal articles, performed the first experiments, but never developed into standardised clinical organisations.
Later History
Hippocrates of Kos played to his psychiatric patients to bring them respite and comfort.
Arab hospitals in the 13th century contained music rooms to benefit patients.
Long and rich history of music used for therapeutic benefit.

‘Whenever the spirit from God came on Saul, David would take up his lyre and play. Then relief would come to Saul; he would feel better, and the evil spirit would leave him.’
- 1 Samuel 16:23


‘Music is a moral law. It gives a soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, a charm to sadness, and life to everything. It is the essence of order, and leads to all that is good, just and beautiful…’
- Plato
Early History
Native American and many other cultural heritages incorporate ethnic music and chanting into healing ceremonies.
Effects of music on depression in older people: a randomised controlled trial.
-8 week study
-Main therapy mode: listening
-Participants chose own music
Depression reduced weekly
-Chan 2012
Do
se
eff
ecti
ve
Consistent with Gold 2009
WHY BOTHER?!
Music therapy for depression: it seems to work, but how?
Maratos 2011
"ACTIVE DOING"
PHYSICAL
RELATIONAL
AESTHETIC
Training in Music Therapy
The first degree programme was founded in Michigan State University in 1944

Undergraduate Course
University of Derby

Postgraduate Course
Anglia Ruskin University
Guildhall School of Music and Drama
Roehampton University
University of Wales
Who can avail of music therapy?
Where are services available?
Different settings
Hospitals
Hospices
Schools
Prison Services

Organisations
National Rehabilitation Hospital
Music Therapy Ireland
Music Therapy Connections NI
Headway Belfast
NI Music Therapy Trust
SIDE EFFECTS
Evidence?
"
Research has shown that preschool children taught with an early exposure to music through games and songs showed an IQ advantage of 10 to 20 points over those children taught without exposure to the songs. In the same study, students at age 15, had higher reading and mathematicsscores in comparison to children without musical experiences." -Campabello et all
Wylie, 1983
& General functioning
"Astellas"
"Innovation in patient care"
Thank You for listening


Any Questions?
Where to train?

How are we applying our knowledge?
vs
SEROTONIN
History
Full transcript