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Nativization Model by Andersen
Transcript of Nativization Model by Andersen
nativization and denativization. This can happen when a second language used by adult parents becomes the native language of their children.
The result is the kind of pidginization evident in early language acquisition and documented in Schumann's work. involves accommodation
the learner adjusts his internalized system to make it fit with the input
learner uses inferencing strategies to reshape his interlanguage according to an “external norm”
is a construction of grammar based on the form specified by the input. characterized by assimilation
learners make the input conform to their own internalized view of what constitutes the L2 system.
they simplify the learning task by forming hypotheses based on knowledge that they already possess (L1 knowledge and knowledge of the world).
they attend to an 'internal norm.' Roger Andersen Nativization Model Nativization Model Nativization Model, is to a great extent modeled on Schumann’s Acculturation Model, with the difference that it is much more focused on cognitive aspects of learning processes. =) >>>>>>>>> !!!!! !!!!! Andersen has been strongly influenced by Slobin's idea of
. """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" (7) the one-to-one principle the multifunctionality principle the principle of formal determinism the principle of distributional bias Roger Andersen the transfer to somewhere principle the relixicalization principle the relevance principle Operating Principles Operating Principles "children possess a language making capacity" How Children perceive their environment and try to make sense of it and organize it??? Which processes are involved??? how learners create and restructure their interlanguage??? what are the results of these processes??? According to Andersen: Language acquisition consists of 2 general processes:
Nativization and Denativization. These terms cannot be separated, they are aspect of a same overall process of acquisition. Language development situation: Language development situation: INPUT INPUT INACCESSIBLE A person will construct their grammar on the basis of internal norms. ACCESSIBLE A person will construct their grammar on the basis of the input and deviate more or less from their internal norm.
Focus : the processes, the cognititve operating principles, and communicative strategies that could fit in his model. ···· º º º º º º º º º º º º º º º º =) SLA is the gradual transition of attention from an internal to an external norm…the switch that learners make from reliance on simplifying to reliance on inferencing strategies. cognitive or processing limitations of the acquirers
the limited of access to native speakers
psychological resistance to the input
input is too variable and inconsistent ->>>>> the learner cannot deduce a consistent set of rules from the input. Slobin:: consisting of:
principles that enable them to perceive and segment items in the input
principles that govern how they organize and store new information * * * * operating principles have been criticized in both L1 and L2 acquisition research on the grounds that they difficult to test and are not mutually exclusive. !!!!!!! they are cognitive in nature and characterize the way in which children perceive their environment and try to make sense of it and organize it. º0 º0 º0 º0 º0 I I I I I !!!!!!! inaccessible input more/less accessible input fully accessible input Internal grammar output grammar = internal grammarr output grammar more/less = internal grammarr output grammar = internal grammar <<<< <<<< INACCESSIBLE ACCESSIBLE / It proposes that there is a human biological capacity for language representing a set of internal norms for language. an interlanguage system should be constructed in such a way that an intended underlying meaning is expressed with one clear variant surface form or construction. e.g.: Clitic pronouns in French and Spanish are placed before the verb but in IL, they are placed after the verb, like full NPs. Examples of clitics are the pronoun "'em" in "I see 'em" and the definite article in French "l'arme", "the arm." (a) Where there is a clear evidence in the input that more than one form marks the meaning conveyed by only one form in the interlanguage, try to discover the distribution and additional meaning (if any) of the new form.
(b) Where there is evidence in the input that an interlanguage form conveys only ne of the meanings that the same form has in the input, try to discover the additional meaning of the form in the input.
e.g.: Spanish learners of L2 English typically acquire a single negator, ‘no’, to begin with. However, the input supplies evidence of other negators; e.g.: ‘not’, and ‘don’t’, each with a different meaning. Pay closer attention to form-meaning relationships that are clearly and uniformly encoded in the input than to other form-function relationships.
e.g.: Learners pay attention to negations other than ‘no’ in the input because the other forms are modeled clearly in the input such that their meanings are transparent. If both X and Y can occur in the same environments A and B, but a bias in the distribution of X and Y makes it appear that X only occurs in environment A and Y only occurs in environment B, when you acquire X and Y, restrict W to environment A and Y to B.
e.g.: in Spanish, punctual verbs tend to occur in the preterit form, and state verbs in the imperfect form; L2 learners manifest this bias in the use of the two tenses. When you cannot perceive the structural pattern of the L2, use your L1 with lexical items from the L2.
e.g.: Japanese learner of L2 English have been observed to use English lexis in S+O+V sentence frames, but this may be short-lived because English provides no evidence of S+O+V word order. A grammatical form or structure will occur consistently and frequently in IL as a result of transfer if, and only if:
(1) natural acquisitional principles are consistent with the L1 structure, or
(2) there already exists within the L2 input the potential for (-mis) generalization from the input to produce the same form or structure.
e.g.: French learners of L2 English do not place pronouns before the verb even though this is possible in French because no model for such transfer is available in the input. If two or more functions apply to a content word, try to place them so that the more relevant the meaning of the functor is to the meaning of the content word, the closer it is placed to the content word. If you find that a notion is marked in several places, at first mark it only in the position closest to the relevant content word
e.g.: in the Spanish verb system, aspect is most relevant to the lexical item it is attached to (i.e. the verb), tense has a wider scope but is still closely related to the verb, and subject-verb agreement is least attached to the verb. L2 learners acquire aspect, tense and agreement in this order.