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Transnational Adoption

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Amanda Reinhart

on 8 March 2014

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Transcript of Transnational Adoption

What does it mean?
Laws and Regulations
Transnational Adoption laws are different for almost every province in Canada and different in most countries.
Countries that Canadians Adopt From
Presented by: Amanda, Alyssa, Amber, Julie, & Joelle
Transnational Adoption
International adoption is a kind of adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parents of a child that is a national of a foreign country. An international adoption is also referred to as intercountry adoption or transnational adoption.
International vs. Domestic
1. Wealthy Families
Average: $35,000 - $45,000 per adoption

2. Wealthy Countries
"the pattern that emerges is a collective cultural trauma on a global scale, manifested through the bodies of children and the mothers they have been taken from. It is an accepted, admired, praised, seemingly benevolent program of forced assimilation and amnesia, of relatively rich women entitling themselves to the children of severely impoverish and desperate women. It is a program of complicity in the so-called sending countries and unbridled greed for the natural resource of children in receiving countries. It is a program of ignorance enforced by the adoption industry itself"
1 in 3 children waiting to be adopted is a minority
Wait times are 3 times longer for minority children
7 of 10 adopting families are white
Quiroz, Pamela (2007). Colour-blind Individualism, Intercountry Adoption, and Public Policy. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare (2): 57-68.

Quiroz, Pamela (2007). Colour-blind Individualism, Intercountry Adoption, and Public Policy. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare (2): 57-68.
"Intercountry adoption serves as a vehicle of privilege masked by benevolent rhetoric"
Quiroz, Pamela (2007). Colour-blind Individualism, Intercountry Adoption, and Public Policy. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare (2): 57-68.
"Adopting children of specific colour is seen as a matter of individual taste"
Quiroz, Pamela (2007). Colour-blind Individualism, Intercountry Adoption, and Public Policy. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare (2): 57-68.
Colour-blind Individualism
Should we be colour-blind when dealing with International Adoptions?
What Does This Mean for Concepts of Family and Childhood?
Re-Conceptualization of the Issue?
History of the Home Children Movement
Emigration of children from Britain to Canada mostly in between 1870 & 1930
Dr. Barnardo inspecting children's trunks before leaving for Canada
Ages 8-16 but also as young as 4 and 5
In Ontario taken to receiving homes in Belleville, Stratford, Niagra-on-the-lake, and Toronto
Home Children Movement
The Life of a Home Child
No say in their future
Basic Education
Used as Cheap Labour
"Anyone would've thought there's a fella who's got everything, but it was like I had a block of ice inside me. I felt empty. I knew I was missing something. I couldn't work out what it was. And there was this feeling – I didn't know who I was. I didn't know where I'd come from. I didn't belong to anybody. I was in this void." - Harold Haig - died August 3, 2012
End of
World War II
end of
the Korean War
Leysin Conference
1. Adoption is acceptable as long as
the best interest of the child are primary
2.The search for a family for an orphaned or abandoned child should be conducted in the child’s
county first
limit institutionalization
, decisions to place in or outside the country to be made as soon as possible
4.Every attempt should be made to find homes

for children with special needs
5.Parents must operate with
fully informed

6.Parents must be
about what the child’s life might be like
adequate home study
must be completed
8. The
appropriate ‘match’
must be considered
9.Once a child is placed, there must be a
trial supervised period
to determine fit
10.All documents must be
legitimate and scrupulous
legal responsibility
for the child must be established as soon as the child is in the new country
12.The adoption must be deemed
legal in both the sending and receiving country.

Source: Bagley,C.; Young, L.; and Scully,A. 1993. International and Transracial Adoptions: AMental health Perspective. Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Co., 138-144.
Hague Convention on Protection of
Children and Co-operation in
Respect of Inter country Adoption
(Hague Adoption Convention)
United Nations Convention
on Rights of the Child and
International Adoption (UNCRC)
The family unit (kin) are the what children
need for nurturing, support, and guidance.
Main focus:
To consider the best interest
of the child
Main focus:
Looking out for and protecting the best interest of the child
vs meeting the needs of the adult/ nation.
International year of the child
for Canada
The Canadian government
promoted a national
children's agenda and gave
their formal approval of the
Hague Convention
Canada gave their formal approval of the UNCRC
Objectives :
They wanted to establish a system between the signatory states to
ensure that inter country adoption take place in the best interest of the child
respect for his/ her fundamental rights
recognized in international law

in order to prevent the abduction/ trafficking of children.
Canada signed the
Hague Convention
Bringing the Home Children Movement to an End
The death of Thomas Bernardo
End of Depression & WW2
Let's focus on..
Only offers relative adoptions
Married Couples & Singles
Prefer applicants of Polish origin
Agency Fees
Travel Expenses
Specific age differences between child and adoptive parents
2 processes:
Adoption Process
Immigration Process
What Country Am I?
What Country Am I?
# 1 country in 2010 that
Canadians adopted from.
91% of the adopted children are girls (Ratio 344 : 7).
The fortune cookies are not a traditional custom to this Country.
What Country Am I?
5th most popular country for Adoption with 102 in 2010.
An Adoption Ban came into effect in 2010; after a parent sent an adopted child back to his country of origin.
In 2012 the Canadian Junior Hockey team lost to this country in the semi-finals.
Google Image, 2013
Google Image, 2013
Youtube, 2013
2nd most popular country for Canadian Adoptions (172 adopted).
January 12, 2010 there was an earthquake that devastated this country.
Changes to policies and adoption suspensions came into effect after the disaster.
Google Image, 2013
What Country Am I?
8th most popular country Canadians adopted from in 2010.
This country showed the biggest drop; down from 63 in 2010 from 170 in 2009.
It is located in the "horn" of the African Continent
It is still known as one of the poorest country today.
Google Image, 2013.
Countries that have Suspended Adoptions with Canada
Cambodia (except Quebec)
Haiti (suspension by New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan and now British Columbia and some agency in Ontario).
Change the policies surrounding what types of people are "qualified" to adopt
Change the requirements of adoption to allow for more minority groups to adopt for the fostering of culture
Disregard the colour-blind approach (do not stop transracial adoptions, but recognize colour and the implications of that)
Citizenship & Immigration Canada, 2012
International Adoptions to Canada
Top 29 source countries in 2010
China - 472
Haiti - 172
U.S. - 148
Vietnam - 139
Russia - 102
South Korea - 98
Philippines - 88
Ethiopia - 63
Colombia - 62
India - 55
Kazakhstan - 48
Ukraine - 46
Pakistan - 27
Thailand - 23
Jamaica - 18
U.K. - 18
Taiwan - 16
SouthAfrica 13
Lesotho -12
Mexico - 12
Uganda -10
Mali - 7
D.R. Congo - 6
Bulgaria - 5
Ghana - 5
Iran - 5
Kenya - 5
Peru - 5
Swaziland - 5
Total Number of Adoptions In
2010 was 1,946.
Google Imagine, 2013
Definitions about what is a good family and a good childhood are determined by adoption laws from both sending and receiving countries
Laws define the "right" type of parent
Government control due to social assistance fear
Childhood is conceptualized as something that needs to be structured a certain way to benefit the child
Children can be disadvantaged by the notion of an "ideal" adoptive family as elitism and racism play a role and the effects can be culture shock and/or cultural genocide
Name That Country!

Source: Citizenship & Immigration Canada, RDM at March 2011, and GCMS on May 31, 2011. Transmitted Oct. 26, 2011. Summations by Robin Hilborn, Family Helper, www.familyhelper.net.
Adoption Council of Canada, 2012
Adoption Council of Canada, 2012.
Globe & Mail, 2012
Adoption Council of Canada, 2012.
Globe & Mail, 2012
Adoption Council of Canada, 2012.
In Ontario..
An example checklist for Transnational Adoption
Contact an adoption agency
Complete agency application forms
Complete a home study & background checks
Immigration Process
Wait for referral
Receive & review information on potential children to adopt
Send acceptance of interest in child & receive notice to travel by countries authorities
Visit child, finalize adoption, complete paper work, immigration. Take child home.
The following 6 months an adoption practitioner will supervise and send reports to your province and child's country
How Transnational Adoption Has Changed
Stricter laws/rules
Higher fee's
Longer process & waiting times
Open adoptions available
Siblings are more often kept together
Socially acceptable
Do you think that the children waiting to be adopted benefit or suffer from current adoption laws and process?
What would you change?
Article 3
Adults should always try to do what is
best for children and young people.
Governments must do
to make sure children and young people are safe and well looked after.
Article 8
Governments should do everything possible to protect the right of every child and young person to a name and
nationality and to family life.
Article 7
Children and young people have the right to a
name and a nationality
Children and young people have the right to be cared for by both parents
Article 11
Governments must work together to
children and young people being
taken illegally to another country
Article 21

The child’s best interests
must be the top priority in adoption.
Governments can
support adoption
between countries.
Children and young people who are adopted by people in another country must have the
same protections
as children adopted by people in their own country.
Article 32
Every young person has the right to be
protected from harmful work and economic exploitation.
Governments must do everything to protect this right.
Governments must set a minimum age at which young people can work, and they must introduce rules to
protect young people in work.
Article 37

Governments must do everything to
protect children and young people from torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
This is an absolute right, with no excuses for any breach of it.
Full transcript