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WH Unit 2 - Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome NC Essential Standards: WH2

Joyce Pevler

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of WH Unit 2 - Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome
The ancient Romans had over 175 holidays per year. On these days the government offices and most businesses were closed.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having so many holidays.
Focus Question #15
Peninsula divided by mountain range
Boot shaped, 750 miles long north to south
Mild climate, rich soil
Rome in center, located on Tiber River - access to trade routes
The History
Ancient Italy
Settled along the Tiber River
Settled in southern Italy
Lived north of Rome
For a time ruled much of central Italy
Italy in 750 BCE
Influence of the Etruscans
Built first walls and sewer
Introduced gladiator games & chariot racing
Building techniques, ex: the Arch
Art & Architecture
Influence of the Greeks
Mythical Founding of Rome:
Romulus & Remus
Considered to be the founding date of the Roman State
509 BC Rome Drives Out the Estrucans
The Roman

Republic means: “Thing of the people”
System of government where some officials are chosen by the people
Believed it would keep any individual from gaining too much power
Right to vote given to free-born male citizens

Farmers and laborers
Majority of population
Right to vote
Could not hold office
Roman Society
Wealthy landowners
Held most of the power
Inherited positions
Head of household
Had absolute power in family
Played larger role than in Greece
Had freedom & influence
Both girls & boys learned to read & write
Even lower classes taught
Similar to Greeks – different names for gods & goddesses
Republican Government
1 Dictator
(Given absolute control in times of war)
(Lasted only 6 months)
(Chosen by Consuls then elected by Senate)

2 Consuls
(Rulers of Rome)
(Power limited - term 1 year)

300 Senators
(Representative body for patricians)
(Made the Laws)

Tribal Assembly
(Representative body for plebians)
Written law code
Forced into law by the plebeians
Became the basis for later Roman law
Established the idea that all free citizens had a right to protection of the law
The Twelve Tables
Punic Wars

Series of wars
Rome & Carthage
First Punic War
Cause: Fear of Control
Result: Romans win
Second Punic War
Cause: Carthage seeks revenge
Carthaginian General: Hannibal
Led army across Spain & France to attack Rome
Third Punic War
Rome attacks Carthage

Survivors sold into slavery
Conquered Mediterranean Area
Success due to skillful diplomacy and well-trained army

Defeated enemies treated with justice
Busy trade caused massive fortunes to be amassed
Wealthy families bought huge estates called latifundia
Thousands of Soldiers returned from war without jobs or homes
Farmers and soldiers moved to cities to find work
Gap widened between rich and poor
Effects of Expansion
Reform Leaders
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus - the poor should be given grain and small plots of free land
Military Reformer
Gaius Marius
recruited an army from the poor and homeless (promised them land)
professional standing army
Reforms Fail
Triumvirate formed - A group of three rulers

Set up between Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
Pompey fears Caesar and coerces Senate to order him to disband legions and return home
Ceasar's domain extended to the Rubricon River

To cross the river -- with his army -- leads to war
Julius Caesar returns to Rome and becomes dictator
"The die is now cast"
Ceasar's Reforms
Increased pay for soldiers
Public works -- employ jobless
Land given to poor
Expanded Senate to 900 members
Granted citizenship to more people
Started colonies to increase land ownership
(Like the Greeks!!)
(His major supporters)
Enemies feared Caesar planned to make himself king of Rome
Assassinated on March 15
Beware the Ides of March!!
44 BC
Civil War
Second Triumvirate formed
* Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus
* Ruled for 10 years
Caesar gains popularity with the people of Rome as he conquers Gaul (France)
* Alliance ends with jealousy and violence
Lepidus forced to retire
Octavian and Mark Antony go to war
Antony forms alliance with Cleopatra Defeated – commits suicide
Ancient Rome Assessment
1. Who won the Punic Wars? a) Rome
b) Carthage c) Punic
d) Hannibal

2. Why was Caesar assassinated? a) He planned to make himself emperor b) He planned to make himself dictator c) He planned to make himself Senator d) He planned to make himself king

3. Based on the mythical story of the founding of Rome, how was Rome founded?
Who were the patricians?
Who were the plebeians?
Who had the largest population?
Who had the most power?
Focus Question #16
Answer ALL questions in paragraph form.
Roman Empire:
27 BCE - 476 CE

Octavian Augustus:
Rome's First Emperor
Caesar’s grand nephew
Laid the foundation for a stable government
Created efficient, well-trained civil service
Octavian accepts title of Augustus – “exalted one”

Kept title imperator – “supreme military commander”
Where term emperor comes from
Pax Romana: 27 BCE – 180 CE
"Roman Peace"
200 years of peace & prosperity
Begins with Augustus
Ends with Marcus Aurelius
Legions maintained & protected roads
Trade flowed freely
Economic Reforms
Census ordered to make tax system fair
Set up postal service
Issued new coins to make trade easier
Put jobless to work building roads & temples
Imperial Roman Road System
The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE
Problems within the Empire
Lived extravagantly
Majority of population
Barely had necessities of life
Roman practice of providing free wheat to some poor Romans as well as costly forms of entertainment as a means gaining political power through popularity
Were trained warriors who fought in contests to entertain the Romans
Were usually recruited from slaves or prisoners of war
The Roman Colosseum
A track used primarily for horse-racing, although it was used on occasion for hunts or mock battles
Circus Maximus
Could seat 250,000 people!!
Chariot Races
Rise of

Citizens had to show loyalty by honoring Roman gods & acknowledge the divine spirit of emperor
People polytheistic - so it didn’t matter
63BC Conquered Judea
Jews excused from worshipping Roman gods since monotheistic
Most Jews lived in Judea
Jesus' Misson
In the Garden
Rise of Chrisianity
All welcome
Belief that Jesus died for sins
Persecution of Christians
* Roman officials suspected Christians of disloyalty to Rome
Refused to worship Roman gods

* Some used as scapegoats for economic and political problems within the empire

*Thousands were crucified, burned or killed by wild animals in the arenas
People willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of a belief or a cause
Christians met in secret to avoid persecution
Catacombs under Rome used for burial
Powerful Force
Christianity spread rapidly
Widespread appeal
Embraced all people
Gave hope to hopeless
Appealed to those repelled by extravagances of Rome
Offered personal relationship with a loving God
Promised eternal life after death
66AD - Jewish Rebellion
Rebellion crushed by Rome
Ultimately destroyed Jerusalem (70)
Many Jews enslaved & transported to various parts of empire

Many others left Judea - Diaspora
Model of Herod's Temple in Jeruselem
Destroyed by the Romans
Roman Plunder - from Arch of Titus
Last Jewish stronghold -- breached in 73
Claimed: 960 of 967 committed suicide
Constantine: 312 - 337
Persecution ended in 313

Edict of Milan issued
Granted freedom of worship to all citizens of Roman Empire
First Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity
Constantinople: “The 2nd Rome” (Founded in 330)
Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
Early Christian Church
Shared common faith in teachings of Jesus
Gradually organized a structured Church
Each Sunday gathered for a ceremony of thanksgiving to God
Slowly evolved hierarchy of authority within Church
Church growing in strength & influence, but Roman power fading

Latin-speaking people in West (Western Empire)
Bishops of Rome came to be called Pope
Claimed authority over all others
Greek-speaking people in East (Eastern Empire)
Felt all patriarchs should share spiritual authority as equals
Divisions in the Church
Diocletian Splits
the Empire in Two: 294 CE
His plan:
Two emperors
One Eastern
One Western
Political Turmoil
Economic Turmoil
Emperors overthrown constantly
High taxes
Farms lost productivity--
Foreign Invasions
Germanic people invaded

Legacy of Rome
Republic Government
Roman Law
Latin Language
Roman Catholic Church
City Planning
Romanesque Architectural Style
Roman Engineering
Sewage Systems
Literature, History, & Philosophy
Imitated Greek styles
Written in Latin
Recorded both highs and lows
Livy - Major Roman Historian
Hellenistic philosophy of Stoicism
Its adherents insisted on the importance of accepting all situations with virtues – toughness or manliness
Art &
Roman art and architecture were also influenced by the Greeks. Sculptors created realistic depictions and also tried to reveal a person’s character in their figures. Roman architects built monuments to Roman power and created domes over large spaces.
The Panthenon
Science & Mathematics:
Practical Uses
Effects of Roman Achievement
Advances are made in

architecture, engineering,

building, & medicine
Law Codes


Roman laws become

basis for laws

around the world

civilization spreads
Roman Empire Assessment
1. Who as Rome’s first emperor? a) Caesar
b) Augustus
c) Pompey
d) Hannibal

2. People willing to sacrifice their lives for a cause are called?
a) Christians b) Martyrs
c) Senator d) Patricians
1. Who as Rome’s first emperor? a) Caesar
b) Augustus
c) Pompey
d) Hannibal

2. People willing to sacrifice their lives for a cause are called?
a) Christians b) Martyrs
c) Senator d) Patricians
Roman Empire Assessment
Ben Hur Video Clip

4. What were two results of the Punic Wars?

5. Rome will "borrow" many ideas/customs from the Greeks. Did the Roman Republic reflect the influence of Athens or Sparta? Explain your choice.

6. Why was the crossing of the Rubicon River such a significant event in the history of Rome?
1. Monstrous or deformed offspring may be put to death by the father.
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