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IDF-502 Wk 5 - Introduction to Typography
Transcript of IDF-502 Wk 5 - Introduction to Typography
Introduction to Typography
Punches and dies for seals in ancient times
Movable type / Gutenberg Bible
Parts of a letter
(just a few)
Serifs and stems
Baseline and x-height
Ascender height vs. cap height
Ascenders and descenders
Counter, character width
(1964 Deutsche Normenausschuss)
(1962 Vox-ATypI/1967 British Standard)
"Typefaces" vs. "Fonts"
Typefaces: created by type designers, these are the designs we know as Baskerville, Comic Sans, Times New Roman, etc.
Fonts: are created by type foundries, are the digital files that enable printing of typefaces
"Typography is the visual component of the written word."
-Typography For Lawyers
Size: typographic scale (from Bringhurst):
"Typography exists to honor
- Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style
"Good typography reinforces the goals of the text."
- Matthew Butterick,
Typography for Lawyers
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type.
It can also include type design.
The space between
(also called letterspacing)
Overall spacing of word or line of text
Vertical space between lines of text
The 1964 DN Groups
The Vox-ATypI Groups
Slab Serif / Egyptian
(width of a body of type)
One point = 1/72 of an inch
One pica = 12 points
One em = distance horizontally equal to the type size being used (e.g. 12pt text, 1 em = 12pt)
One en = half of an em
Also used for measure:
Millimeter = mm
Pixel = px
x-height = ex
% = percentage
leading should be wider than the word spacing
Small measure, less leading
Wide measure, more leading
Leading = line-height
Beyond typeface "weight" like bold or light versions of roman (regular) weight
Choose weights carefully, based on solving design and/or content problems
TrueType vs. OpenType vs. PostScript Fonts
In traditional printing, the font is the complete set of one size, weight, and style of a typeface
Originally developed by Apple to compete with Adobe Type 1 fonts
Compatible with Windows and Mac
Most fonts on your computer are TT fonts
All "outline" fonts, similar to
Also known as Adobe Type 1, Type 3, PostScript Type 1, etc.
These fonts use the PostScript language to create outlines (like vector images)
.pfb, .pfm (Windows)
.pfm, .afm (Mac)
Originally developed Microsoft (and later Adobe) to supersede TrueType (and Adobe Type 1)
OT contains outlines in TrueType and Type 1 (actually CFF) formats plus additional metadata
Computer Fonts vs.
Computer fonts stored on local machine vs. web fonts stored in cloud
Font (or subset of font) saved with a document (e.g. PDF) so another user can view document with intended font
Fee-based usage ($0 and up) of premium fonts
Various licenses available (single-user, multi-user, web server, commercial, etc.)
Desktop vs. web vs. mobile apps vs. e-publishing