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Elements of the Periodic Table

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Heaven Brady

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Elements of the Periodic Table

The First Twenty Elements of the Periodic Table Symbol: H
Atomic #: 1
Atomic Mass: 1.00794
# of Protons and Electrons: 1
# of Neutrons: 0
Melting Point: -259.54 C
Boiling Point: -252.87 C
Non-Metal Hydrogen Helium Symbol: Li
Atomic #: 3
Atomic Mass: 6.941
Number of Protons/Electrons: 3
# of Neutrons: 4
Melting Point: 180.54 c
Boiling Point: 1347.0 C
Metal Lithium Symbol: He
Atomic #: 2
Atomic Mass: 4.002602
# of Protons/Electrons: 2
# of Neutrons: 2
Melting Point: -272.o C
Boiling point: -268.6 C
Nonmetal Beryllium Uses:
Balloons and metal refining
Hydrogen is the lightest element
Hydrogen ids the most abundant element
Hydrogen is extremely flammable
The physical form of hydrogen at room temperature and pressure is a colorless and odorless gas Uses:
Balloons and deep sea diving
Helium has the lowest melting and boiling point of all element
Helium is the second-least reactive noble gas
Inhaling helium temporarily changes the sound of a persons voice
Helium is obtained by extracting it from natural gas By: Heaven Brady Uses:
Batteries, Ceramics, and Lubricants
Lithium is found in igneous rocks and waters of mineral springs
Elemental lithium is very flammable
Lithium burns bright white
Lithium has a density half of that of water. Symbol: Be
Atomic #: 4
Atomic Mass: 9.012182
# of Protons/Electrons:4
# of Neutrons: 5
Melting Point: 1278.0 C
Boiling Point: 2970.0 C
Metal Uses:
Spacecrafts, missiles, and aircraft
Beryllium used to be called Glucinium
Glucinium refers to the sweet taste of beryllium and its compounds
Chronic exposure to beryllium can lead to a life-threatening allergic disease called berylliosis
Beryllium is found in the gemstone, beryl Beryllium Uses:
Heat resistant alloys
Boron was identified as an element in 1824 by Jons Jacob Berzelius
Boron is an important nutrient to plants
Boron is found in volcanic spring waters in the form of boric acid
The name boron as created by combining borax and carbon Boron symbol: B
Atomic #: 5
Atomic Mass:
# of Protons/Electrons: 5
# of Neutrons: 6
Melting Point: 2300.0 C
Boiling Point: 2550.0 C
Metalloid Symbol: N
Atomic #: 7
Atomic Mass: 14.00674
# of Protons/Electrons: 7
# of Neutrons:7
Melting Point: -209.9 C
Boiling Point: -195.8 C
Non-Metal Nitrogen Uses:
Forms most of the atmosphere
Nitrogen gas makes up 78.1% of the volume of Earth's air
Your body is 3% nitrogen by weight
Nitrogen was once referred to as "burnt" air
Air that no longer has oxygen is almost all nitrogen symbol: O
Atomic #: 8
Atomic Mass: 15.9994
# of Protons/Electrons: 8
# of Neutrons: 8
Melting Point: -218.4 C
Boiling Point: -183.0 C
Non-Metal Oxygen Carbon Symbol: F
Atomic #: 9
Atomic Mass: 18.998404
# of Protons/Electrons: 9
# of Neutrons: 10
Melting Point: -219.62 C
Boiling Point: -188.14 C
Metal Fluorine Symbol: Ne
Atomic #: 10
Atomic Mass: 20.1797
# of Protons/Electrons: 10
# of Neutrons: 10
Melting Point: -248.6 C
Boiling Point: -246.1 C
Non-Metal Neon Uses:
Lighting and signs
Neon plasma glows a reddish orange
Liquid neon is used as a cryogenic refrigerant
Neon is formed in stars
Neon has no stable compounds Symbol: Na
Atomic #: 11
Atomic Mass: 22.98977
# of Protons/Electrons: 11
# of Neutrons: 12
Melting Point: 97.72 C
Boiling Point: 883 C
Metal Sodium Uses:
Medicine and agriculture
The pure metal of sodium spontaneously ignites in water
Sodium maintains fluid balance within the cells throughout the body of humans
Sodium is found in the sun and many other stars
Room temperature Sodium is so soft it can be cut with a butter knife Symbol: Mg
Atomic #: 12
Atomic Mass: 24.305
# of Protons/Electrons: 12
# of Neutrons: 12
Melting Point: 650.0 C
Boiling Point: 1107.0 C
Metal Magnesium Uses:
Airplanes and missiles
Magnesium is usually extracted from seawater
An adult human requires about 0.3g of magnesium per day
The center of a chlorophyll molecule contains magnesium
Magnesium is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body and is mostly found in bones Symbol: Al
Atomic #: 13
Atomic Mass: 26.981539
# of Protons/Electrons: 13
# of Neutrons: 14
Melting Point: 660.37 C
Boiling Point: 2467.0 C Aluminum Uses:
Airplanes, soda cans, foil, and cars
Aluminum makes up over 8% of our Earth's crust
Aluminum is silver when freshly made but tarnishes to white when in the air
Aluminum is very slow to corrode
Aluminum weighs 1/3 as much as much as steel Symbol: Si
Atomic #: 14
Atomic Mass: 28.0855
# of Protons/Electrons: 14
# of Neutrons: 14
Melting Point: 1410.0 C
Boiling Point: 2355.0 C
Metelloid Silicon Uses:
Glass, semiconductors, and cosmetics
Silicon can be found on the beach in the form of sand
If you take sand and melt it and take all the silicon it makes glass
Almost all sand is made up of silicon
Silicon makes up about 1/4 of the Earth's crust Symbol: P
Atomic #: 15
Atomic Mass: 30.97376
# of Protons/Electrons: 15
# of Neutrons: 16
Melting Point: 44.1 C
Boiling Point: 280.0 C
Non-Metal Phosphorus Uses:
Fertilizers and detergents
Red phosphorus needs friction to ignite, therefore its use in matches
Phosphorus burns spontaneously in air
White phosphorus causes severe burns when in contact with the skin
White phosphorus can be changed into red phosphorus by being exposed to sunlight or heated in its own vapor to 250 C Symbol: S
Atomic #: 16
Atomic Mass: 32.066
# of Protons/Electrons: 16
# of Neutrons: 16
Melting Point: 112.8 C
Boiling Point: 444.6 C
Non-Metal Sulfur Uses:
Gunpowder and Medicine
Sulfur is often found near volcanoes and hot springs
Sulfur is put in medicine called sulfa drugs that kills bacteria that makes you sick
The gunpowder in fireworks also contains sulfur
Sulfur is insoluble in water Symbol: Cl
Atomic #: 17
Atomic Mass: 35.4527
# of Protons/Electrons: 17
# of Neutrons: 18
Melting Point: -100.98 C
Boiling Point: -34.6 C Chlorine Uses:
Water purification and bleaches
Chlorine gas has a greenish color
Chlorine combined with sodium makes table salt
Chlorine kills bacteria and disease
Chlorine is in the bleach we use to wash clothes Symbol: Ar
Atomic #: 18
Atomic Mass: 39.948
# of Protons/Electrons: 18
# of Neutrons: 22
Melting Point: -189.3 C
Boiling Point: -186.0 C
Non-Metal Argon Symbol: K
Atomic #: 19
Atomic Mass: 39.0983
# of Protons/Electrons: 19
# of Neutrons: 20
Melting Point: 63.65 C
Boiling Point: 774.0 C
Metal Potassium Uses:
Glass and soap
Potassium can be found in bananas
Potassium is always bonded to other elements
2.4% of the Earth's crust is made up of Potassium atoms
Potassium can be found in the world's oceans Symbol: Ca
Atomic #: 20
Atomic Mass: 40.078
# of Protons/Electrons: 20
# of Neutrons: 20
Melting Point: 839.0 C
Boiling Point: 1484.0 C
Metal Calcium Uses:
Airplanes and missiles
Calcium helps keep your bones strong and your nervous system send impulses through your body
3% of the Earth's crust is made of calcium
Animals that live in the ocean like clams and oysters' shells contain calcium
Pure Calcium is a hard silver colored metal Uses:
Supports life
Liquid and solid oxygen are pale blue
Animals,plants, and humans require oxygen to breath
Oxygen makes up about 21% of the air we breath
2/3s of a humans body mass is made up of oxygen Uses:
Refrigerants and toothpaste
Fluorine was discovered by Henri Moissan in 1886
Fluorine and its compounds are used in making uranium
Fluorine is a corrosive pale gas
Elemental Fluorine is highly toxic Liquid Oxygen Aluminum Foil Safety Matches White Phosphorus Uses:
Argon is non-reactive so it is good to use when welding
Argon is put inside of light bulbs to make them work better
Argon makes up a little over 1% of our atmosphere
Argon is used to grow silicon crystals because it doesn't react with silicon Uses:
Steel and Filters
Carbon can bond with many other chemical elements forming nearly 10 million compounds
Carbon can take the form of one of the hardest substances (diamond) and softest (graphite)
Carbon has the highest melting point of all the elements
Carbon exists free in nature and is the fourth most abundant element Symbol: C
Atomic #: 6
Atomic Mass: 12.0107
# of Protons/Electrons: 6
# of Neutrons: 6
Melting Point: 3500.0 C
Boiling Point: 4827.0 C
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