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World War I

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Matt Rawlik

on 28 November 2012

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Transcript of World War I

WAR AND REVOLUTION The Road to World War I Guide to Section 1 Main Ideas
Militarism, nationalism, and a crisis in the Balkans led to World War I
Serbia's determination to become a large, independent state angered Austria-Hungary and initiated hostilities People to Identify Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Gavrilo Princip, Emperor William II, Czar Nicholas II, General Alfred von Schlieffen Nationalism and the System of Alliances In late 19th century, Liberals believed if European alliances were organized via national lines, states would work together
System of nation-states in late 19th century led to competition
rivalries over colonies and trade grew
Europe's great powers divided into two loose alliances
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in 1882
Great Britain, France and Russia created Triple Entente in 1907 Nationalism and the System of Alliances In early 20th century, a series of crisis tested the alliances
Balkan crises between 1908-1913
European states were left angry
Each state was guided by its own self-interest
willing to use war to preserve power
Not all ethnic groups have nations
Slavic minorities in the Balkans and Hapsburg Empire still dream of their own nation
Irish in U.K. & Poles in Russia share that dream Internal Dissent National desires were not only source of internal strife
Socialist labor movements grew more powerful
Socialists were increasingly inclined to strike
Some conservative leaders feared that Europe was on the verge of revolution
some historians believe that the desire to suppress internal disorder may have encouraged leaders to plunge into war Militarism Growth of mass armies after 1900 heightened tensions
Conscription, a military draft, had been established by most Western countries by 1914 (US & UK were exceptions)
European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914
Russian Army - 1.3 million
French & German armies - 900,000
British, Italian and Austro-Hungarian armies - between 250,000 and 500,000 Militarism Militarism - aggressive preparation for war - was also growing
Military leaders gain influence
Insisted that their grand plans not be altered in order to maintain stability
Many political leaders had little leeway The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 Miltarism, nationalism, and desire to stifle internal conflicts may have all played a role
Decisions by European leaders in the Balkan crisis led directly to conflict The Serbian Problem States in SE Europe struggled for many years to rid themselves of Ottoman Rule
Rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Russia created tensions in the region
By 1914, Serbia, supported by Russia, was determined to create a large, independent Slavic state
Austria-Hungary (which had Slavic minorities) was determined not to see that happen
Many Europeans saw danger in this situation The Serbian Problem "Serbia will someday set Europe by the ears, and bring about a universal war on the Continent...I cannot tell you how exasperated people are getting here at the continual worry which that little country causes to Austria under encouragement from Russia...it will be lucky if Europe succeeds in avoiding war as a result of the present crisis. " - British Ambassador to Vienna Assassination in Sarajevo On June 28, 1914, Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the A-H throne, was visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia
Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia to be part of Serbia
Planned to assassinate the Archduke and his wife
Attempted to kill them by throwing a bomb at their car
Later, Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old Bosnian Serb, succeeded in shooting both the Archduke and his wife Austria-Hungary Responds Austria-Hungary did not know whether the Serbian government was invovled
Austria-Hungary did not care
It saw an opportunity to "render Serbia innocuous [harmless] for once and for all" as the Austrian foreign minister put it
A-H wanted to attack Serbia, but feared a Russian intervention
A-H sought the backing of their German allies Austria-Hungary Responds Emperor William II of Germany and his chancellor responded with a "blank check"
Said that A-H could rely on Germany's support, even if "matters went to the length of a war between A-H and Russia"
Austrian leaders sent an ultimatum to Serbia
Ultimatum made such extreme demands that Serbia had little choice but to refuse them
On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia Mobilizes Russia was determined to support Serbia
Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army
In 1914 mobilization is considered an act of war
Leaders informed the Czar that "partial" mobilization was impossible
Due to their plans requiring mobilization against both A-H and Germany
Czar ordered full mobilization on July 29, knowing that Germany would consider the order an act of war The Conflict Broadens German government warned Russia to halt within 12 hrs
Russia ignored, Germany declared war on 8/1
Germans had a plan as well; "Schlieffen Plan"
Called for a two-front war against France & Russia
Conduct a small holding action against Russia
Most of the German army would invade and defeat France
Then the Germans would turn their full attention to Russia The Conflict Broadens Could not mobilize their army solely against Russia
Germany declared war on France on August 3
Issued ultimatum to Belgium, demanded the right of German troops to pass through neutral Belgium
On August 4, Great Britain declared war on Germany for violating Belgium's neutrality THE WAR Main Ideas The stalemate at the Western Front led to new alliances, a widening of the war, and new weapons
Governments expanded their powers, increased opportunities for women and made use of propaganda 1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate Many political leaders war was not worth fighting
Others believed diplomats could easily control situation
Government propaganda had worked in creating national hatreds
Most were genuinely convinced their country's cause was just
In August '14, most believed the war would last a few weeks
Believed it would be over by Christmas The Western Front German hopes for a quick end to the war rested on a gamble
The Schlieffen Plan
German advance stopped short of Paris
First Battle of the Marne (Sept. 6-10)
War quickly turned into a stalemate
Two lines of trenches stretched from English Channel to Switzerland
Two sides kept virtually the same position for 4 years The Eastern Front The war on the Eastern front was marked by mobility
Germany defeated Russia at Battle of Tanneberg and Battle of Masurian Lakes in Eastern Germany
Russia defeated Austria-Hungary at Galicia
Italians betrayed Austria-Hungary
Germans aid A-H and defeat Russians at Galicia
Russian casualties stood at 2.5 million 1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter The trenches dug had become an elaborate defense system
Lines were protected by barbed wire entanglements up to 5 feet high and 30 yards wide
Concrete machine gun nests, and other gun batteries also protected the lines
Supported further back by heavy artillery
Troops lived in holes in the ground, separated by a strip of territory known as "No Man's Land" Tactics of Trench Warfare The development of trench warfare was unexpected
They had been trained to fight wars of movement and maneuver
The only plan they could come up with was to throw massive amounts of men at the trenches
World War I became a war of attrition, a war based on wearing down the other side Widening of the War Both sides sought allies to provide a winning advantage
Ottoman Empire entered on German side
Allies attempted to open a Balkan front at Gallipoli
Disasterous campaign forced allies to withdraw
In return for Italy joining the allies, GB and France promised to give Italy some of Austria's territory Widening of the War By 1917 the war was truly a global conflict
In the Middle East, Lawrence of Arabia urged Arab princes to overthrow Ottoman overlords
in 1918, British forces from Egypt destroyed the Ottomans
Allies took advantage of German preoccuption and lack of naval strength to seize German colonies Entry of the United States US tried to remain neutral
Immediate cause of US involvement resulted from naval war between Germany and UK
Dueling blockades
Germany enforced its blockade with unrestricted submarine warfare
On May 7, 1915 British ship Lusitania was sunk Entry of the United States After strong protests, Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare
By January 1917, military leaders wanted to resume USW
Admiral Holtzendorff assured Wilhelm "I give your Majesty my word as an officer that not one American will land on the continent."
The return of USW brought the US into the war
US troops did not arrive in large numbers on the continent until 1918 The Home Front: The Impact of Total War World War I became a total war
Total war - involves the complete mobilization of resources and people
affected the lives of all citizens in warring countries
Masses of men had to be organized and supplies manufactured
Germany alone had 5.5 million men in uniform in 1916
This led to an increase in government powers and the manipulation of public opinion Increased Government Powers Governments had to respond quickly
Countries drafted tens of millions of young men
wartime governments expanded their powers over the economy
Free market systems were temporarily put aside
Government set up prices, wages, and rent controls
rationed food supplies and materials
regulated imports and exports
took over transportation systems and industries Manipulation of Public Opinion Patriotic enthusiasm waned by 1916
Civilian moral was beginning to crack
authoritarian regimes relied on force to subdue their populations
even democratic nations expanded powers to stop dissent
British parliament passed Defence of the Realm Act (DORA)
Made active use of propaganda
UK and France exaggerated German atrocities in Belgium Russian Revolution Background to Revolution Russia was unprepared militarily and economically for total war
Had no competent military leaders
Czar Nicholas II insisted on taking control of the army personally Background to Revolution Russian industry unable to produce weapons
Many soldiers trained using broomsticks
Others were sent to the front without rifles and told topick one up from a dead comrade
By 1917, the will of Russians to fight had vanished Beginnings of Upheaval Czar Nicholas II was an autocratic ruler
Increasingly cut off from events at home by his German-born wife Alexandra
She was a stubborn woman who had fallen under the influence of Grigori Rasputin
Rasputin was an uneducated Siberian peasant who claimed to be a holy man Beginnings of Upheaval With the czar at the front, Alexandra made all the important decisions
She insisted on consulting Rasputin first
As leadership began to stumble, Russian people grew more and more upset
Even conservative aristocrats felt that something needed to be done
Assassinated Rasputin in December 1916 The March Revolution A series of strikes by working-class women broke out in Petrograd
Government had begun rationing bread weeks earlier
many women waiting in line for bread also worked 12-hr shifts
On March 8, 10,00 women marched through the streets demanding "Peace and Bread" The March Revolution Other workers joined the women
all of the cities factories shut down on March 10
Nicholas ordered troops to break up demonstrations by any means necessary
Soldiers joined protests instead The March Revolution The Duma met and established a provisional government
Provisional government was headed by Alexander Kerensky
Nicholas II abdicated the throne on March 15
Provisional government decided to continue the war to preserve Russia's honor The Rise of Lenin Bolsheviks began as a small faction of a Marxist party
Came under the power of Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov, or V.I. Lenin
Became a party devoted to violent revolution
In April 1917, Germans sent Lenin back to Russia
Bolsheviks represented the discontent of the people
Promised to end the war, redistribute land
Three slogans: "Peace, Land, Bread," "Worker Control of Production," and "All Power to the Soviets" The Bolsheviks Seize Power By end of October, Bolsheviks make up a slight majority of Petrograd and Moscow soviets
During the night of November 6, the Bolsheviks seized the Winter Palace, the seat of the provisional government
Lenin promised peace, and that would not be easy
On March 3, 1918, Lenin signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany
Gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces Civil War in Russia Many groups opposed the Bolsheviks
Allies gave material aid to anti-Communists
First serious threat came from Siberia
Anti-Communist (White) army attacked westward and advanced almost to Volga River
Swept through Ukraine and almost reached Moscow
By 1920 majority of White forces were defeated
Royal family was also a victim of the Civil War
Romanovs were moved to a mining town in 1918
On July 16, members of a local soviet murdered the royal family Triumph of the Communists One reason for Communist triumph was a well-disciplined Red Army
Leon Trotsky was responsible for this
He reinstated the draft and insisted on rigid discipline
Disunity of anti-Communists forces weakened their efforts
Policy of War Communism ensured supplies for the Red Army
Meant gov't control of banks and industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration Triumph of the Communists Another instrument was terror
Red secret police - Cheka - began a Red Terror aimed at the destruction of those who opposed the new regime
The presence of foreign troops on Russian soil - call to Russian patriotism
By 1921, the Communists were in complete control
Transformed Russia into a centralized state
Because the Allies had aided the anti-Communists, the new regime was hostile to the Allies End of the War The Last Year of the War 1917 had not been a good year for the Allies
Allied offensives had been badly defeated
The Russians had withdrawn from the war
The cause of the Central Powers looked favorable
U.S. entry added a psychological boost
in 1918, American troops would prove crucial A New German Offensive Germany was now free to concentrate on Western Front
General Ludendorff planned an offensive (March 1918)
By April, Germany was 50 miles from Paris
Advance was stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne
Allies began a new offensive against Germany
By September, Ludendorff told German leaders the war was lost
He demanded they ask for peace Collapse and Armistice Allies were unwilling to make peace with Kaiser's government
Councils of workers and soldiers were forming in northern German
Wilhelm II gave into public pressure and left the country
Two days later, November 11, 1918, new German government signed an armistice Revolutionary Forces Group of radical socialists form German Communist Party in December 1918
A month later they attempted to seize power in Berlin
New Social Democrat Party, backed by the army, crushed the rebels
A rebellion in Munich was also put down
German middle class began distrusting communism Revolutionary Forces By wars end, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was no more
Ethnic groups increasingly sought independence
Empire was replaced by independent republics of Austria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia
Also the large multinational state of Yugoslavia Peace Settlements In January 1919, representatives from 27 victorious Allied nations met in Paris
The reasons for fighting had changed over the years
When Europe had gone to war in 1914, they sought territorial gains
By the beginning of 1918, more idealist reasons were being expressed Wilson's Proposals President Wilson outlined his "Fourteen Points" to Congress
"Fourteen Points" were a basis for a peace settlement
Proposals included
Reaching peace agreements openly rather than through secret diplomacy
Reducing armaments to a "point consistent with domestic safety"
Ensure self-determination Wilson's Proposals Wilson portrayed World War I as a people's war agaisnt "absolutism and militarism"
Needed to create a "general assocation of nations"
Wilson became spokesperson for a new world order based on democracy and international cooperation Paris Peace Conference Secret treaties had raised hopes of European nations for territorial gain
These hopes would not be ignored
National interests also complicated deliberations
David Lloyd George had won a decisive victory promising to make Germany pay
The French approach to peace was chiefly guided by its desire for national security Paris Peace Conference To Georges Clemenceau, French premier, the French people had suffered the most
Clemenceau wanted Germany stripped of all weapons, vast German payments - reparations - to cover the cost of war and a separate Rhineland as a buffer state Paris Peace Conference Most important decisions were made by Wilson, George and Clemenceau
League of Nations was created on January 25, 1919
Clemenceau gave up on the idea of a separate Rhineland and instead accepted a defense treaty with G.B. and the U.S. the Treaty of Versailles Final peace settlement incldued five separate treaties
The Treaty of Versailles with Germany was the most important
Germans considered it a harsh peace
Were especially unhappy with Article 231, the so-called War Guilt Clause Treaty of Versailles Declared that Germany (and Austria) were responsible for starting the war
Order Germany to pay reparations for all the damage to which the Allie governments and their people had been subjected to as a result of the war "imposed upon them by the agression of Germany and her allies" Treaty of Versailles Military and territorial provisions also angered the Germans
Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000, cut back its navy and eliminate its air force
Alsace and Lorraine were returned to the French
Sections of east Germany were awarded to the new Polish state
German land on both sides of the Rhine was to be demilitarized
Stripped of all weapons and fortifications A New Map of Europe As a result the map of Europe was laregly redrawn
Both the German and Russian empires lost much territory
Austro-Hungarian Empire ceased to exist
Paris Peace Conference was supposed to be guided by self-determination
Mixture of peoples in eastern Europe made it impossible to draw borders along ethnic lines A New Map of Europe Compromises had to be made, sometimes to satsify national interests of the victors
France for example wanted eastern Europe to be a buffer against Germany and Russia
Therefore there were many ethnic minorities in many eastern European nations
The problem of ethnic minorities within nations would lead to later conflicts A New Map of Europe Ottoman Empire also broke up
To gain Arab support during the war, the Allies promised to recognize the independence of Arab states after the war
Once the war was over, Allies changed their minds
France took control of Lebanon and Syria, Britain received Iraq and Palestine
Peace settlement created "mandate system"
A nation officially governed another nation on behalf of the League of Nations but did not own the territory
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