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Steady state responses to exercise (cardiovascular and respiratory)

steady state responses to exercise (lesson 1)
by

junaid khaliq

on 17 July 2014

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Transcript of Steady state responses to exercise (cardiovascular and respiratory)

Cardiovascular responses
Heart rate (HR)

- Heart beats between 60 - 80 beats per minute

Steady state exercise
Effects of pH and temp on oxygen dissociation curve
Respiratory responses
Blood flow - increased energy expenditure due to exercise requires adjustment in blood flow..CV adapts so that more blood can be delivered where its needed, the working muscles
Introduction
If exercise is constant oxygen consumption increases and levels off (pleateau)
Exercise increases energy usage
20 minute jog - initial responses (CS,RS,NS,ES)
3-4 mins later body adapts to exercise
Remaining 15-16 mins - steady state exercise
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Neuromuscular
Energy
Cardiac output - increase in cardic output benefits because more blood (and oxygen) can be transported to working muscles
Blood pressure - dilation of blood vessels in active muscless increases vascularr area for blood flow
Thermoregulation - steady steate exercise increases sweating.. because increased plasma volume...which supports sweat glad function during heat stress
Starlings Law - one of the reasons SV increases ... states that stroke volume increases in response to increase in blood volume filling the heart
Stroke volume - Peak - submaximal exercise
HR increases during exercise in relation to intensity of exercise
Greatest increase between rest and moderate exercise
No further increase - maximal exercise - Left ventricle
Body tolerates max exercise by increasing HR and maintaining SV
SS exercise = resting heart rate decreases whilst stroke volume increases
Therefore .. a greater cardiac output (oxygen to working muscles) maintained with fewer beats = increased fitness
Trained athlete = SV (110) and RHR (50) .. average for trained athlete - 5500 ml
Vasodilation - vascular portion of active muscles increases during dilation of arterioles

Vasoconstriction - vessels shut down blood flow to tissues = lesser blood supply
Rhymtathic contraction and relaxtion of skeletal muscles forces blood through blood vessels and returns it to the heart
Trained athlete - stores less heat early during steady state exercise.. reaching thermal steady state sooner and at a lower temp then untrained athlete
Causes the cardiac muscle to contract forcefully which also increases stroke voume due to the greater contractions in the heart
Increases in breathing rate maintain avleolar ventilation (AV) during SS exercise
Trained athletes - achieve AV by increasing TV and minimally increasing BR
70% rest

85% total ventilation
Overview
Oxygen dissociation curve shows relationship between %
oxygen saturation of blood
and
partial pressure of oxygen
Known as vasodilation - increased diameter of vessels - increased blood flow to muscles and skin
Kidney function comprises of 20% CO
Max exercise - blood flow to kidneys decreases to approx 1% of CO
Kidneys effectively shut down during exercise and blood is diverted to working muscles ..stomach and intestines
Stretches ventricular wall causing greater contractions in the heart
Reduced heart rate of athlete allows greater filling during diastole = greater stroke volume
Increase occurs because deeper breathing causes greater % of incoming TV to enter the alveoli
During steady state exercise .. inc temp and lower blood pH concentration affect oxygen-haemoglobin dissacotition curve ..so that more O2 can be unloaded to supply active muscle
Reaches plateau as body can match o2 demands
Increased venous return - flow of blood back to the heart is needed after it has been distributed
Suddenly stop exercising = no muscle pump = blood pooling (circulation of blood in limbs)
This is especially the case after exercise as more blood has been sent the exercising muscles, far away from the heart
The return of blood through veins to the heart is aided by the contracting muscles surrounding the veins squeezing the blood upwards
Valves in the veins prevent the blood from moving downwards
This is one of many reasons why it is important to warm down after exercise
During exercise the left ventricle of the heart will fill more completely
Respiratory rate increases prior to exercise just as heart rate - otherwise known as?
During SS exercise
Breathing rate and tidal volume
Breathing rate increases as exercise intensity increases
During steady state exercise the breathing rate will reamin constant
Increase in co2 levels in blood
Receptors recieve and send signals to the respiratory centre
Respiratory centre stimulates respiratory muscles to contract faster
SS = trained - deeper breathing rather then inc breathing
In SS exercise large amounts of lactate enter blood from active muscle
at exhaustion... blood pH can reach 6.8 however this returns to 7.4 when blood stabilises
Cardiovascular responses
Respiratory responses
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