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onoadaga lake project

salt mine
by

Jack Grass

on 1 January 2013

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Transcript of onoadaga lake project

ONONDAGA LAKE PROJECT ONONDAGA LAKE TIME LINE 1793 COMMERCIAL SALT PRODUCTION BEGINS
ON LAKE SHORE 1880 ONONDAGA LAKE IS A POPULAR
RESORT AREA WITH FISHING, SWIMMING
AND BOATING 1884 SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY
BEGINS PRODUCTION OF SODA ASH 1896 CITY BUILDS SEWERS WHICH
FLOW DIRECTLY INTO ONONDAGA CREEK 1918 SOLVAY PROCESS CO.
BEGINS PRODUCTION OF
ORGANIC CHEMICALS 1940 SWIMMING IS BANNED 1946 ALLIED CHEMICAL AND DYE CO. BEGIN DISCHARGE OF MERCURY WASTES INTO LAKE 1970 FISHING IS
BANNED 1971 ONONDAGA COUNTY BANS USE OF PHOSPHORUS IN LAUNDRY DETERGENT 1972 FEDERAL CLEAN WATER
ACT IS PASSED 1986 ALLIED CLOSES SODA ASH
MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS 1989 NEW YORK STATE ATTORNEY GENERAL
FILE A LAWSUIT IN FEDERAL COURT FOR POLLUTION
VIOLATIONS AGAINST ALLIED CHEMICAL 1992 FEDERAL COURT APPROVES ORDER FOR CLEAN UP PLAN OF ONONDAGA LAKE 1993 ONONDAGA LAKE
MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE (OLMC) PUBLISH FIRST STATE OF ONONDAGA LAKE REPORT
AND PLAN 1994 ONONDAGA LAKE IS ADDED
TO THE FEDERAL SUPERFUND
NATIONAL PRIORITIES LIST 1998 AMBIENT MONITORING
OF POLLUTION IS IMPLEMENTED. 1999 NYS DOH LIFTS BAN
ON EATING CERTAIN
SPECIES OF FISH 2006 PHOSPHORUS RELEASE FROM METRO TO ONONDAGA LAKE IS REDUCED FROM 200 POUNDS PER DAY TO 50 POUNDS PER DAY. 2008 HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC. BEGINS CONSTRUCTION OF GROUND WATER BARRIER WALL AND TRENCH COLLECTION SYSTEM. 2009 NYSDEC ISSUES PARTICIPATION PLAN DESIGNED TO ENHANCE PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN THE ONONDAGA LAKE BOTTOM CLEAN UP PROJECT. TWENTY SPECIES INDIGENOUS TO ONONDAGA LAKE AREA 1600 1. MOOSE
2. BEAR
3. WOLF
4. ELK
5. BISON
6. RATTLESNAKE
7. COUGAR
8. TURTLE
9. AMERICAN SALMON
10. AMERICAN EEL
11. LAKE STURGEON
12. BORBOT AND YELLOW PERCH
13. DEER
14. PIGEONS
15. CEDAR TREE
16. BLACK ASH TREE
17. WHITE PINE TREE
18. YELLOW BURCH
19. HEMLOCK TREE
20. MAPLE TREE
21. ASH TREE
22.OAK TREE
23. AMERICAN ELM TREE. SCIENCE VOCABULARY 1.ABIOTIC-Non living parts of organisms habitat.
2.BIOTIC-Living parts of an organisms habitat.
3.HERBIVORE-Consumers that only eat plants.
4.OMNIVORE-Consumer that eats both plants and animals
5.CARNIVORE-Consumers that only eat animals
6.PARASITE-organism that benefits from another
7.FOOD WEB-consists of many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem.
8. ENERGY PYRAMID-shows the amount of energy that shows the amount of energy that moves from on feeding level to another.
9. HOMEOSTASIS-The maintenance of stable internal conditions in an organism.
10.BIOME-is a group of land ecosystems with similar climates and organisms.
11.INVASIVE SPECIES-a species not native to an ecosystem which cases harm to the ecosystem.
12.TROPHIC LEVELS-the position an organism occupies in a food chain.
13. PRODUCERS-An organism that can make its own food
15. CONSUMERS-An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms.
16.DECOMPOSERS-break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem.
17.EQUALIBRIUM -a state of balance due to equal action of opposing forces.
18.ECOSYSTEM-community of organisms that live in a particular area along with their nonliving surroundings.
19.POPULATION-All members of one species in a partic-ular area.
20.COMMUNITY-all the different populations that live in an area.
21.BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY-The number of different species in an area.
22.CARRYING CAPACITY-The largest population that an area can support.
23.SUPERFUND SITE-a sight where toxic wastes have been dumped and the EPA has designated them to be cleaned up.
24.ECOTOURISM-Tourism in exotic, often threatened , natural environments, esp to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife. SOCIAL STUDIES VOCABULARY 1.INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION-period in american history in which society moves to a focus on machines, factories and industry.
2. CORPORATION-business owned by many investors.
3.TRUST-group of corporations run by a single board of directors.
4.SOCIAL DARWINISM-A theory in which social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions.
5.URBANIZATION-movement of large numbers of people from rural areas to cities.
6.PUBLIC WORKS-The work of building such things as roads, schools, reservoirs, carried out by the government for the community.
7.CONSERVATION-protection of natural resources.
8.INDUSTRIALIZATION-the development of industry on an extensive scale.
9. CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY-a term used to describe business people who are especially successful and powerful.
10. MONOPOLY-company that controls all or nearly all businesses in a particular industry.
11.CAPITALISM-an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.
12. BIG BUSINESS-Large scale financial or commercial activity.
13.FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM -economic system in which each privately owned business decides what to produce,how much to produce,and what prices to charge.
14. GOVERNMENT REGULATION-Controlling human or societal behavior by rules and restrictions set up by the government.
15.VERTICAL INTEGRATION-the combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies.
16.BUILDING CODES-set of standards established and enforced by local government for the structural safety of buildings. SCIENCE QUESTIONS 1. HOW ARE THE TOP PREDATORS IN AN ECOSYSTEM DEPENDENT ON THE SUN FOR SURVIVAL?
Energy enters most ecosystems as sunlight. The sunlight is converted to food molecules by producers. The energy is then transferred to each organism that eats a producer. Then to other organisms that eat these consumers getting all the way to the top predator.

2.DESCRIBE HOW PREDATORS AND PREY POPULATIONS EXIST IN AN EQUILIBRIUM. HOW CAN THIS BALANCE BE DISRUPTED?
Predators rely on prey to survive. There must be enough prey such as mice for the owl population to sustain its number. If the number of mice decreases for any reason, the owl will not be able to stay in the area because of lack of food supply. The balance can be disrupted by pollution, over hunting, loss of habitat, increase in another species who competes for the same food.

3.AN ECOSYSTEM MAY HAVE THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUAL PLANTS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE ENERGY PYRAMID, BUT ONLY SUPPORT A POPULATION OF 20 TOP PREDATORS. WHY IS THIS SO? COULD ONONDAGA LAKE EVER SUPPORT A BALD EAGLE POPULATION OF OVER ONE MILLION INDIVIDUALS? SUPPORT YOUR ANSWER USING SPECIFIC VOCABULARY.
The most energy is available at the producer level of the pyramid. As you move up the pyramid each level has less energy available than the level below.Since so much energy is lost at each level of the pyramid it limits the amount of third level consumers that can be supported at the top of the food pyramid
Onondaga Lake could never support a bald eagle population of 1 million because of the destruction of much of the producer level in the lake as well as the first and second level consumers due to pollution and overfishing. The surrounding area is also more populated and industrialized making it hard for the third level consumers to stay in the area.

4.EXAMINE YOUR LISE OF 20 SPECIES AND FOOD WEB OF 1600. HOW WOULD THIS LIST COMPARE TO ONONDAGA LAKE IN THE 1980'S? LINK 5 SPECIFIC THINGS THAT HAVE HAPPENED TO ONONDAGA LAKE THAT HAVE LED TO A DECREASE IN BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY.
Five specific things that have led to the decrease in biological diversity are:
1)pollution
2)over population
3)urbanization
4)industrialization
5)over hunting and over fishing
The number of species in 1980's would be much smaller than in 1600 because of the the above factors. Because the environment around Onondaga Lake is so modernized and populated that many of the larger species simply would not have the space and food supply anymore even if the lake is cleaner again.

5. DO YOU THINK THE LAKE WILL EVER SUPPORT THE SAME ECOSYSTEM IT DID IN 1600? WHY OR WHY NOT?
Onondaga Lake could not support the same ecosystem as it did in 1600 because of the many changes that have occurred in the last 400 years. First there are too many humans living where the ecosystem had originally flourished. Pollution and industrialization have made the environment small and unable to sustain a large food web.

6. NAME THREE INVASIVE SPECIES THREATENING ONONDAGA LAKE AND EXPLAIN WHY THEY CAN CAUSE PROBLEMS TO THE ECOSYSTEM.
1. Round Gobies-Russian minnow that eats eggs of bass and perch
2.water chestnut-asian aggressive invasive plant that clogs waterways and are a breeding ground for bacteria.
3.Emrald Ash Borer-beetle native to Asia kills ash trees

7.WHY DOES ONONDAGA LAKE NEED TO BE CLEANED UP?
There are many reasons why Onondaga Lake needs to be cleaned up. One reason is the lake is second most polluted lake in the world. For a small lake it is quite a big human made problem that needs to be fixed. The second reason to clean the lake is to create a healthy environment for the entire ecosystem. When the land, lake and wildlife are protected and healthy humans are too.
The third reason to clean up the lake is to be sure the future is preserved for the next generations to experience nature and wildlife.

8. CHEMICAL COMPANIES ARE NOT SOLEY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEMISE OF ONONDAGA LAKE. LIST 4 OTHER MAJOR SOURCES OF POLLUTION THAT HAVE IMPACTED THE ONONDAGA LAKE ECOSYSTEM.
1)sewage and human waste
2)noise pollution
3)global warming and carbon emissions
4)litter

9. LIST 5 DANGEROUS CHEMICALS FOUND IN ONONDAGA LAKE AND EXPLAIN THE EFFECTS THESE CHEMICALS ON HUMANS AND ORGANISMS.
1)mercury-neurological and cardiac problems.
2)phosphorus-increases algae growth in lake, depletes oxygen levels
3)ammonia and nitrite-toxic to fish interferes with reproduction
4)salt wastes-chloride sodium and calcium-
5)chlorinated benzene -toxic to plants, wild life ad people

10.HOW ARE CLEAN UP EFFORTS TODAY DIFFERENT FROM CLEAN UP EFFORTS THAT BEGAN IN THE 1970'S? HOW HAS PUBLIC OPINION INFLUENCED THESE PLANS?
In the 1970's , The Clean Water Act was just past. Rules ad regulations were being enforced to companies who were responsible for the pollution of the lake. More recently actual cleaning of the wetlands, mudboils, dredging and a more complete cleaning is talking place.. SOCIAL STUDIES QUESTIONS 1. WHY DID AMERICAN CITIES GROW SO RAPIDLY DURING THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION?
American cities grew rapidly during the industrial revolution because of the development of transportation like the Erie Canal and Railroad. Natural resources could be developed and transported to other cities. Such as salt production in Syracuse.

2.AS CITIES GROW, WHAT SERVICES MUST BE PROVIDED FOR HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELL BEING OF THE PUBLIC THAT YOU WOULD NOT NEED IN A SMALL VILLAGE? WHOSE RESPONSIBILITY IS IT TO PROVIDE THESE SERVICES?
As cities grow so does the population and the need to provide for the population. Sewage and water facilities are needed, hospitals or clinics are needed, Schools and Libraries are needed. Fire departments and Police departments to handle the large number of people. In the past it was religious groups and large companies, then it was the local government and state government.

3. WHAT PUBLIC WORKS PROJECTS WERE PERFORMED IN SYRACUSE THROUGHOUT THE LATE 1800'S AND EARLY 1900'S?
Syracuse Public Works Projects were as follows:
First telegraph 1840, First Savings Bank1850, First telephone 1879, Police department 1839, First large fire department 1859, High school 1868, Syracuse University 1870.First public hospital 1870,

4.TECHONOLOGICAL ADVANCES CAN PROVIDE BENEFITS AND ECONOMIC STRAINS ON SOCIETY. EXPLAIN HOW,CITING SPECIFIC EXAMPLES FROM THE CITY OF SYRACUSE.
Benefits of technological advances were better living conditions, better education, more jobs and prosperity, In Syracuse, with the industrial revolution came railroads, Erie canal and salt transport. Syracuse had Syracuse University open 1870. Public hospital 1870, museums , libraries, sports.

5. WHY ARE MANY CITIES LIKE SYRACUSE STILL USING ANTIQUATED,SUBSTANDARD FACILITIES, LIKE SEWERS, THAT WERE BUILT 60+ YEARS AGO? USE METRO WASTE WATER SYSTEM AS AN EXAMPLE.
The original sewer system Syracuse was built between 1875 and 1950. The system had waste discharge directly into area streams and drainage ditches. It was not upgraded until the late 1950's to present. It is expensive and time consuming to have the system improved. Now the waste water is treated in three stages to remove solid waste, then bacteria consumes dissolved organic waste, finally tertiary treatment since 2004 is a state of the art process for removing ammonia ad phosphorus and sterilizes bacteria. The cleaned waste water is then discharged to Onondaga lake.

6. WHY WERE THERE VERY FEW RESTRICTIONS AND REGULATIONS ENFORCED ON CORPORATIONS, LIKE SOLVAY PROCESS, IN THE UNITED STATES FROM THE LATE 1800'S AND EARLY 1900'S?
There were very few laws and regulations placed on companies at this time regarding environmental protection. The companies provided jobs, money and prosperity which was most important to cities and communities..

7. EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT TOWARD BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY DURING THE 1800'S.
The government supported business and industry because it made the country strong and wealthy.

8. WHAT CONDITIONS SPURRED THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES IN GENERAL AND SPECIFICALLY IN SYRACUSE?
The availability of natural resources and a way to transport then all over the country. For Syracuse there was the salt industry which made them one of the biggest suppliers in the United States until 1900. Syracuse was also a large supplier of soda ash. This made our city prosperous.

9.WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES, AND SPECIFICALLY SYRACUSE?
The positive impacts of industrialization are more jobs, better standard of living, better education and healthcare, The negative impacts of industrialization are pollution, overpopulation, stripping of natural resources. 1.www.students.sunyocc.edu-History and Summary of METRO Syracuse.
2.AMERICAN HISTORY OF OUR NATION-Civil War to the Present-Prentice Hall
3.LIFE SCIENCE-Science Explorer-Prentice Hall
4.www.nys.info-New York Invasive Species
5.www.syracusethenandnow.org/dwtown/onlake/onondagalake.ntm
6.www.oeiz.org/downloads/OLCE/Fisheries%20factsheet
7.www.googlegroups.com/site/lakeprojecttimeline
8.RETURN TO GLORY-The Resurgence of Onondaga Lake
9.New York State Department of Environmental Conservation-Onondaga Lake Clean Up
10.The Onondaga Lake Watershed
11. wikipedia.org/wiki/OnondagaLake WORKS CITED 1977 ALLIED CLOSES
CHLORINATED BENZENE PLANT 1995 THE OLMC IMPLEMENTS MUDBOIL
REMEDIATION PROJECTS TO REDUCE FLOW
OF SEDIMENT INTO ONONDAGA CREEK. 2001 OIL TANKS ARE REMOVED FROM "OIL CITY" AND SITE REMEDIATION BEGINS. 2005 HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL WHICH WAS FORMERLY ALLIED CHEMICAL REMOVES MORE THAN EIGHT TONS OF MERCURY FROM LINDEN CHEMICAL SITE. 2007 WETLANDS RESTORATION AT FORMER LINDEN CHEMICAL AND PLASTICS SITE IS COMPLETED.
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