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alessia monopoli

on 16 January 2013

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0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c Icelandic Volcano Eyjafjallajoekull In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, which is worse – the volcanic eruption or the European aviation industry? In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the European aviation industry is worse than volcanic eruptions. Humans account for 24 billion tons of greenhouse gases annually, 600 million tons of these gas emissions are caused by the aviation industry. Volcanoes only produce 200 million tons of greenhouse gases, proving the aviation industry is worse than volcanic eruptions. The greenhouse gases from the aviation industry are a large contributor to global warming, whereas volcanoes only produce a small amount of greenhouse gases compared to humans. The last reason volcanic eruption greenhouse gas emissions are than the aviation industry are, the amount of greenhouse gases from volcanoes is consistent each year, regardless of whether or not there was any major eruptions. Greenhouse gases from the aviation industry will continue to rise over the next 50 years to up to 15% of all human greenhouse gas emissions. Can the volcanic eruption be seen as a positive? Yes, volcanic eruptions can be seen as a positive; in fact, volcanoes have many positive effects to the environment. Volcanoes spread fertile volcanic ash over Europe, encouraging growth. The slope of the volcano is and surrounding areas are covered in rich soils. You can also find gems and rare materials in volcanoes that can’t be found anywhere else such as opals and obsidian. Volcanic eruption can create new islands, for example the entire Hawaiian chain of islands. Volcanoes are enormous sources of geothermal energy. In Iceland, geothermal energy is one of the main sources to generate energy. Finally, they have recently discovered that volcanoes can be a prime petroleum source. YES!

• Planes have many negative effects on our climate

• Cause climate change, causing the air to warm.

• High altitude emissions of greenhouse gases have a larger impact on the climate because they trigger a series of chemical reactions and atmospheric effects that have a warming effect.

• The carbon dioxide traps heat from the sun reflecting off the Earth’s surface, causing the air to heat up.

• Nitrogen oxide emissions have a more significant impact at higher altitudes, making the emissions from airplanes worse than emissions from ground transportation.

• The contrails from airplanes (clouds that trail behind) trap heat that would otherwise escape the Earth, which temporarily causes the air to heat up.

• we should limit the use of airplanes because the greenhouse gases emitted from them are contributing to global warming and are negatively affecting our climate. Should humans limit the use of planes? The Year Without Summer 10000 Around the world, there is about... High speed rail is a type of passenger rail system significantly faster than traditional rail systems.
•They are used all over Europe, and places like China
•They are being developed so that some trains reach speeds of over 300km/h
•Very safe because of a predictable course, and it lowers the possibility of collisions
•Less weather related delays than airplanes
•Produce less noise
•Shortens trip time
•Reduce dependence on oil
•High speed rail is environmentally friendly and will cut down carbon emissions What alternative forms of transportation would you recommend? (think about social, environmental, economical issues) High Speed Rail System Teleconferencing

Teleconferencing is a live exchange of information between several people

•It would be a positive alternative for flying for business people

•With technology being developed it is getting easier to communicate and share data

•Meetings could be held between two parties without having to leave the city Volcanic eruptions can enhance global warming by adding CO2 to the atmosphere, although this is slow, long term effect. One other climate-changing factor that has to be taken into account for volcanic eruptions is global cooling. The ash cloud produced by the eruption of a sub-glacial volcano in Iceland, called Eyjafjallajökull brought chaos to the European air industry between 14 and 21 April. Global Cooling
The most significant climate impacts from volcanic injections into the stratosphere come from the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid, which condenses rapidly in the stratosphere to form fine sulfate aerosols. The aerosols increase the reflection of radiation from the Sun back into space, cooling the Earth's lower atmosphere or troposphere. Several eruptions during the past century have caused a short term decline in the average temperature at the Earth's surface, Including the eruption of Mount. Tambora, which ultimately caused “the year without summer.” •In 1816, the summer season was shorter than normal and is commonly referred to as “The Year Without Summer”

•The middle of May brought unseasonably cool temperatures to the region with light snow reported in Quebec Province with frost as far south as Virginia

•A winter type storm moved into the Canadian Maritimes, the storm dumped 6 to 12 inches of snow over most of Northern Canada with reports of 2 foot drifts in Quebec City

•Frost every morning and reports of trees blackened or scorched

•consequences of this season were harsh

•Only a third to a fourth of the hay was cut with only 10 percent of the crop harvested in some areas. Orchard yields ranged from barren to moderate but enough grains, wheat, and potatoes were harvested to prevent a famine but hardships did occur What is being done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the aviation industry - if any?
The Aviation Industry had developed Canada’s action Plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aviation. This plan involved bringing together airline and airports to sir navigation services and manufacturers in order to effectively address greenhouse gas emissions from the sector. It was said the plan was set to improve fuel efficiency from a 2005base line by an average annual rate of at least 2 percent per year until 2010.
They started with the following:
•Fleet Renewals and Upgrades Retiring older planes and bringing newer more efficient airplanes into service is expected to lead to an average annual fuel efficiency improvement of 0.7% between 2005 and 2020

•More Efficient Air Operations Canadian Airline undertaking more efficient air operations is expected to lead to an average annual fuel efficiency improvement of 0.2% between 2005 and 2020

•Improved Capabilities in Air Traffic Management. The shift from senor based to performance based navigation is expected to enable improvements in average annual fuel efficiency by 1% to 2% between 2005 and 2020

•A global agreement is urgently needed because CO2 emissions from the aviation sector are growing rapidly. By 2020, global international aviation emissions are projected to be around 70% higher than in 2005 even if fuel efficiency improves by 2% per year. ICAO forecasts that by 2050 they could grow by a further 300-700%.

•Direct emissions from aviation account for about 3% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. The large majority of these emissions come from international flights. Including aviation in the EU ETS is forecast to save around 176million tonnes of CO2 emissions over the period up to 2015.
The Commission concluded that bringing aviation into the EU ETS is the most cost efficient and environmentally effective option for controlling aviation emissions after undertaking a wide ranging consultation of stockholders, the public and analyzing several types of market based solutions.
Compared with alternatives such as a fuel tax, including aviation in the EU ETS provides the same environmental benefit at a lower cost to society or a higher environmental benefit for the same cost.
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