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Body Systems and Specialized Cells Lecture

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rocio blasco

on 30 March 2016

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Transcript of Body Systems and Specialized Cells Lecture

Cell Types
Animal-Eukarya and is part of the Animalia king and is a eukaryote.

Plant-Eukarya and is part of the Plantae kingdom and is a eukaryote.

Protist-Eukarya and is part of Protista and is a eukaryote.

Fungi-Eukarya and is part of the Fungi kingdom and is a eukaryote.

Bacteria-Bacteria and is part of the Eubacteria and Archaebacteria kingdom and is a prokaryote.
Plant Organ System
Cell Structure
Body Systems and Specialized Cells Lecture
Hierarchy of Life
Definition:
Atom:
Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements. Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
Molecules:
A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
Organelles:
Made of molecules and are the small organs in each cell. Examples in animal cells are:Neucleus, Ribosome, Lysosome.
Cells:
Made up of organelles. Cells are the building blocks of life. Cells are compsed of organelles, but more: the are also made of cytoplasm containing those organelles and wrapped in a cell membrane

Tissues:
Made from similar cells. Each organ has specific types of cells that make that particular organ and its part. A tissue is a set of cells of the same type working together to perform a function.

Organs:
a part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function, such as the heart or liver in humans.
Organ System:
a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Each does a particular job in the body, and is made up of certain tissues.
Organism:
an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.
Levels of Organization
Skeletal:
Muscular:
Circulatory:
Digestive:
The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines.
Endocrine:
Endocrine:
Excretory:
Nervous:
Integumentary:
Respiratory:
Reproductive:
Immune:
organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue.
organ system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. The skin is only a few millimeters thick yet is by far the largest organ in the body.
The system of an organism's body that performs the function of excretion, the bodily process of discharging wastes.There are several parts of the body that are involved in this process, such as sweat glands, the liver, the lungs and the kidney system.
a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the
The collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
A vast network of organs and vessels that is responsible for the flow of blood, nutrients, hormones, oxygen and other gases to and from cells. Without the circulatory system, the body would not be able to fight disease or maintain a stable internal environment — such as proper temperature and pH — known as homeostasis.
Responsible for the movement of the human body. Attached to the bones of the skeletal system are about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half of a person’s body weight. Each of these muscles is a discrete organ constructed of skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, tendons, and nerves. Muscle tissue is also found inside of the heart, digestive organs, and blood vessels. In these organs, muscles serve to move substances throughout the body.
The skeletal system includes all of the bones and joints in the body. Each bone is a complex living organ that is made up of many cells, protein fibers, and minerals. The skeleton acts as a scaffold by providing support and protection for the soft tissues that make up the rest of the body. The skeletal system also provides attachment points for muscles to allow movements at the joints.
A complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. the nervous system has two components: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Root System
A root's four major functions are 1) absorption of water and inorganic nutrients, 2) anchoring of the plant body to the ground, and supporting it, 3) storage of food and nutrients, 4) vegetative reproduction and competition with other plants.
Shoot System
Leaves
optimized to absorb light and carry out photosynthesis
Stems
Reproductive
Structures
Flower
Fruit
Human Organ System
The plasma membrane is the boundary between the cell and its environment. It regulates what enters and exits the cell. Cells must maintain an appropriate amount of molecules to function inside them. They must also have a way to keep things out or to allow things to enter.
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
The Nucleus is the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.
Nucleous
The nucleolus is the nuclear subdomain that assembles ribosomal subunits in eukaryotic cells.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
Ribosome
Cytoplasm
Vacuole
Mitochondria
Golgi Body
Lysosome
Cytoskeleton
Chloroplast
Cell Wall
The ribosome is a complex of over 50 proteins plus its own complement of RNA, often denoted rRNA. There are free ribosomes that are suspended in the cytoplasm of the cell, but many of them are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum associated with the nuclear envelope of the cell.
Cytoplasm is a thick solution that fills each cell and is enclosed by the cell membrane. It is mainly composed of water, salts, and proteins. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm includes all of the material inside the cell and outside of the nucleus.
Vacuoles are storage bubbles found in cells. They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells. Vacuoles might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. They can even store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination.
Mitochondria is an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae)
Golgi body is a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
Lysosome is an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
The cytoskeleton is a structure that helps cells maintain their shape and internal organization, and it also provides mechanical support that enables cells to carry out essential functions like division and movement.
Chloroplasts work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells. The entire process is called photosynthesis and it all depends on the little green chlorophyll molecules in each chloroplast.(Animal cells do not have chloroplasts.)
A cell wall is a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
Cell Specialization
A. Specialized cells differ in structure (size, shape...) and function (the role they perform in the organism). The structural modifications that occur in a specialized cell equip it to do its job in the organism.

B. Plants are able to do photosynthesis and absorb water. Also they are able to transport water and minerals throughout the plant.

C. Animals are able to store fat, carry oxygen, clean away dirt and transmit impulses.

D.
Organ Systems Working
Together
Animals
1.
2.
3.
4.
Plants
1.
2.
3.
Biological organization, or the hierarchy of life, is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and system that define life using a reductionistic approach. The traditional hierarchy, as detailed below, extends from atoms (or lower) to biospheres
The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe.
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