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Dexter

CBLG 599 Group Project
by

Irene Paclibar

on 13 February 2015

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Transcript of Dexter

According to NFSTC(National Forensic Science Technology Center) below are basic questions need to be asked for bloodstain pattern analysis.
Where did the blood come from?
What caused the wounds?
From what direction was the victim wounded?
How were the victim(s) and perpetrator(s) positioned?
What movements were made after the bloodshed?
How many potential perpetrators were present?
Does the bloodstain evidence support or refute witness statement?
Anesthesia
freezing of top layers of skin tissue
generally reversible
vasoconstriction = white, waxy skin
top layer of skin feels hard and rubbery, but deeper tissue is still soft
numbness
most typically seen on cheeks, earlobes, fingers, and toes
Etorphine - Dexter's choice
also known as M99
very similar to morphine
up to 40,000imes more powerful & 500 times more potent
produced by Thebaine - an opiate alkaloid which has stimulatory rather than depressant effects
used to immobilize elephants and other large and wild animals
administered by hand syringe or syringe dart
available for veterinary use only
can be rapidly reversed with diprenorphine hydrochloride injection
- Psychopathy is a mental disorder, should charges against their criminal activities be heavier, lighter, or the same?

What happens if you have a "kill-gene"?
- Adam Lanza, scienties are coding his genes to see if there is a genetic explanation for his killing spree.

Do we get rid of embryos who have the kill-gene even if they haven't done anything... yet?
Cell Crystallization (tissue freezing)
Psychopaths
-characterize by lack of remorse and empathy, callous, manipulative,glib, and can be violent
- also lacks emotion like fear or distress
-violent offender: hot-headed and hyper responsive vs psychopath: cold-hearted and manipulative
-brain scans: less grey matter in prefrontal cortex and temporal poles
- responsible for understanding emotions and activated when thinking about moral behaviour


Nature vs nurture
- people can be psychopaths and not become serial killers; not all are violent

- past research on twins show that there maybe genetic predisposition

- childhood environment plays a role
- neglected? abused?
-the need for secure attachments to guardians

- Dexter: traumatic childhood experience

-ongoing debate

It is an analysis of an element of crime scene investigation that applies principles of biology, physics, and mathematics
There are three basic types of blood stains; passive stains, transfer stains, and projected (or impact stains)
In Dexter, it is mostly spatter pattern analysis.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Injectable Anesthetics
preferred because: faster, less painful, more reliable & safe
commonly used drugs: Propofol, Etomidate, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Ketamine
Benzodiazepines are strictly sedative
reduces communication between neurons resulting in calming effect on functions of the brain
more safe and efficient
anti-anxiety benzodiazepine drugs will induce sleep at higher doses

Local anesthesia
numbness in specific body part by attacking a nerve function
usually remains conscious
General anesthesia
state of unconsciousness induced using drugs
mid-19th century
inhaled ether vapour - prevented patients from feeling pain
used so surgery would be painless
unconsciousness & immobility was not main purpose - but became desireable
single agent used for nearly a century usually:
chloroform
ether
balanced anesthesia introduced in 1926-1950
triad anaesthesia: narcosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation

"America's favorite serial killer"
- Dexter's MO: chops up the bodies and puts them in a garbage bag; throws the corpse in the ocean

-he has an urge to kill

- portray traits of a psychopath which makes it easy for him to kill
-

Mechanisms of Action
Agonist at opioid receptors
produces clinical effects such as:
analgesia, sedation, respiratory depression
drug also blocks reflexes
strong effect on depressing respiratory centers of CNS - apnea common (difficulty breathing)
can be administered and can see results quickly
recovery time can be quick
highly toxic in human and can cause loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest
How does this affect SOCIETY?
Etorphine
helped revolutionize ability of biologists & veterinarians capture & restrain variety of species
Used frequently in zoos and wildlife medicine
Allowed wildlife researchers to conduct studies on dangerous animals
Anesthesia
Estimated 234 million surgical procedures requiring anaesthesia performed worldwide every year
Some people are still hazy of what it really is & some are hesitant to use
Suspends conscious minds of patients -> allowing them to undergo painful, and invasive surgical procedures
Societal implications
(medicaldaily.com)
Basic Questions
According to NFSTC(National Forensic Science Technology Center) below are basic questions need to be asked for bloodstain pattern analysis.

Where did the blood come from?
What caused the wounds?
From what direction was the victim wounded?
How were the victim(s) and perpetrator(s) positioned?
What movements were made after the bloodshed?
How many potential perpetrators were present?
Does the bloodstain evidence support or refute witness statement?

skin is white and is hardened all the way through
superficial frostbite includes all layers of the skin
deep frostbite can include freezing of muscle and bone
numbness, possible unconsciousness
very difficult to rewarm the appendage without some damage occurring
Frostbite
Frostnip
http://www.thestar.com/life/2015/01/29/psychopaths-brains-wired-differently-researchers-find.html
http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/07/us-brains-psychopaths-idUSBRE8460ZQ20120507
http://blogs.psychcentral.com/forensic-focus/2010/07/the-effect-of-nature-nurture-on-psychopathy-the-case-of-james-fallon/
http://www.livescience.com/7859-psychopath-answers-remain-elusive.html
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/9968753/Studying-Adam-Lanza-is-evil-in-our-genes.html
Process of ice crystals forming within the cells
As intracellular fluids freeze, extracellular fluid enters the cell
this increases the level of salt outside of the cell
cells rupture due to ice crystals and increased water content
tissue freezing occurs when core temperature falls below -2.2°C

Impact on society?
Smokers and people with diabetes and other circulatory problems have a higher risk of developing frostbite
Environment Canada warns that wind chill temperatures of -29 to -39°C, exposed skin can freeze in 10-30 minutes
Across Canada in 2011, there were 95 deaths from cold exposure, with many deaths involving individuals who are homeless
http://www.princeton.edu/~oa/safety/hypocold.shtml
http://www.princeton.edu/~oa/safety/hypocold.shtml
http://www.princeton.edu/~oa/safety/hypocold.shtml
http://healthydebate.ca/2014/01/topic/health-promotion-disease-prevention/sheltering-canadas-homeless
http://www.princeton.edu/~oa/safety/hypocold.shtml
vistriai.com/psychopathtest
Are YOU a psychopath?
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022395690900888
(3): 267-72 (1975)

Jasinski DR et al; Clin Pharmacol Ther 17
http://www.veryshortintroductions.com/view/10.1093/actrade
/9780199584543.001.0001/actrade-9780199584543-chapter-9.

http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Etorphine#section=Information-Sources

http://wildpharm.com/etorphine-hydrochloride-1mgml.html
21 CFR 522.883 (USFDA); U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from, as of March 24, 2008: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr
Full transcript