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Transcript of Non-renewable Resources
Electricty created by the sun through the use of solar panels
-Causes no pollution
-costly to build solar power stations
-The manufacturing of these buildings emit CO2
The wind turbine is a rotating machine that turns the kinetic energy of wind into mechanical energy. The energy can then be used by machines or converted into electricity and stored.
plant materials + animal waste => solid fuel, gaseous or liquid biofuels.
indirect form of solar energy
Most power in CA with 14.5% of all. 400 hydro plants
through movement of water to move turbine and convert to electric energy
Current drought make this type of electric power expansion not a viable choice.
Is energy stored in soil, underground rocks, and fluids in the earth's mantle.
Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Advantages and Disadvantages
wood is a renewable resource
no net of co2 is increased
plantations can help restore
Wind is free and abundant in the U.S.
As long as the Earth rotates, wind is a renewable resource.
4 and 6 cents per kilowatt-hour,
wind turbines use only a fraction of the land.
depletes soil from
emits less CO2 than fossil fuels
low costs depending on location
can trigger small earthquakes
high costs and low efficiency in less favorable locations
some emissions of CO2
could lead to the loss of biodiversity
can increase co2 emissions
can cause soil erosion, water pollution, and loss of wildlife habitat
Low cost base load electricity/environmentally friendly.
But is dependent on time of year and rainfall.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Good wind sites remote locations,
The strength of the wind is not constant and it varies
Construction may disturb wildlife.
currently more expensive than that produced by natural gas-fired plant
there was a total of 85.2 million tons of waste in 2005. Of that, 43.2 million tons is recovered and recycled or used to make energy, but 42 million tons has to be disposed in landfills.
In 2007, 6,236 gigawatt hours of electricity in homes and businesses was produced from biomass
Biomass power plants produced 2.1 percent of the total electricity in California in 2007, or about one-fifth of all the renewable energy.
4,258 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, about 1.5 % of the state's total electricity. That's more than enough to light a city the size of San Francisco.
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
Biogas = raw materials such as recycled waste and is a renewable energy source
in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint.
Hydrogen in cells converts to electricity
like batteries with a positive and negative charge which causes hydrogen and water to create electricity and water.
Renewable and continuous use. Longer range than regular fuels.
Obtaining Hydrogen from water requires E so more efficient equipment is required.
300 FCEV (Fuel cell electric vehicles) by 2015 will be released to the public and by 2020 thousands will own an FCEV.
E required to obtain the hydrogen for hydrogen fuel cells. And car cost aprox $50,000. Lack of fueling stations.
Although wind power may be more environmentally friendly, it's future productions for a 20% contribution by 2030 seem inefficient because it is significantly more expensive than natural gas products.
Biodiesel is a renewable, clean-burning diesel replacement
Made from a diverse mix of feedstocks including recycled cooking oil, soybean oil, and animal fats
reduces co and c02 emissions
High net energy yields for oil palm crops
reduces hydrocarbon emissions
mileage uo to 40% greater
increases Nox emission and smog
low net energy yield for soybean crops
competes with food for cropland
clearing natural areas for plantations reduces biodiversity and increases atmospheric co2 levels
Construction disturbs land and roads.
Commercial 2 MW in size costs roughly $3-$4 million installed.
Supplies almost 6% of California's electricity
made from sugarcane, corn, and switch grass, agricultural forestry, and municipal wastes.
A passive system requires no equipment, like when heat builds up inside your car when it's left parked in the sun. An active system requires some way to absorb and collect solar radiation and then store it.
An active system requires some way to absorb and collect solar radiation and then store it.
some reduction in c02 emisions (sugarcane)
high net energy yield
Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System
Produces a total 392MW of power through 173,500 multi-mirror units. That's enough to power 140,000 nearby homes, and it represents 30 percent of all the solar thermal energy in the US.