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Transcript of Hamlet
and Paris Baker was born in 1564 in Stratford, England and died in 1616 at the age of 52
did not go to college
married Anne Hathaway at age 26 and had three children- Susanna, Hamnet and Judith
joined an acting company ("Lord Chamberlain's Men") when the theaters reopened in 1594 Author- Shakespeare Hamlet was published during the English Renaissance, Religious: Protestant Reformation, Act of Supremacy, translation of the Bible
Political: Elizabeth I and James I (Monarchs)
intellectual: Great Chain of Being: every existing thing in the universe has its place in a divinely planned hierarchical order
Social: women were not educated and were excluded from most professions, and high death rates due to plagues Published in 1603 History Majority were located outside of city walls to avoid city regulations and laws
known for being free from censorship and religion
made of a rectangular stage and pit, usually outside with a covered portion above the stage called the heavens, with wealthy seating options
the Globe Theater was home to "Lord Chamberlain's Men" Theater Must end in some tremendous tragedy or catastrophe involving the death of principle characters
must be brought on by a trait in the character of the hero
the author must portray the hero as a lovable character
Five Acts: Act 1 - disorder that leads to two sides, Act 2 - development of rivalry, Act 3 - climax, Act 4 - reflective act, Act 5 - final climax Elizabethan Tragedy Go here for more information Act 1 Act 3 Act 2 Major Characters Minor Characters Hamlet Claudius Gertrude Ophelia Ghost Horatio Laertes (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Characters Significance - represents the ideal Renaissance man
Adjectives - dramatic, educated, mischievous, determined Significance - represents corruption, sin and murder
Adjectives - deceitful, selfish, and evil Significance - impure because of her affair with Claudius, but innocent in King Hamlet's death
Adjectives - caring, compassionate, impure Significance - she dies first - starts the tragedy and is possibly a reason for Hamlet's madness
Adjectives - confused, possibly depressed and is a pawn Significance - represents revenge, death, and corruption
Adjectives - mysterious, seeks revenge Significance - encourages Hamlet and tries to keep him sane. Always in control
Adjectives - smart, reasonable, controlled, a good friend Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Significance - represents manipulation and used by the King to get his way
Adjectives - "spongy" and loyal Significance - helps develop a subplot and starts the anger about his father's death - leads to death of all main characters
Adjectives - educated, seeking father's approval Polonius Significance - represents manipulation and corruption within the kingdom
Adjectives - control freak and sneaky Act 4 Act 5 Plot Summary Scene 1: Bernardo, Francisco and Marcellus tell Horatio that they have been witnessing a ghost while guarding the castle at night. Scene 2: The King and Queen was Hamlet to be happy for them, but he is still mourning the death of his father. Scene 3: Laertes and Polonius give Ophelia advice about love and Hamlet. Scene 4: Hamlet goes on night watch with the guards, the ghost comes and then Hamlet follows him. Scene 5: The ghost turns out to be Hamlet's father and the ghost tells Hamlet about his death, which makes Hamlet desire revenge. Scene 1: Polonius send Reynaldo to spy on Laertes and Ophelia tells Polonius that Hamlet has been acting crazy, which leads Polonius to think the cause of Hamlet's madness is love. Scene 2: Polonius informs the King and Queen of Hamlet's madness, and they plot to spy on Hamlet and Ophelia. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern spy on Hamlet. The troop of actors come to Denmark and Hamlet makes the plan to trick Claudius into revealing his guilt. Scene 1: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern talk to the King and Queen about Hamlet's madness. Polonius and the King spy on Ophelia and Hamlet while they talk about love. Scene 2: Hamlet tells Horatio to watch Claudius for any signs of guilt during the play. The "play within a play" happens and Claudius gets angry and leaves. Scene 3: Claudius talks to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and tells them to follow Hamlet to England because he is dangerous. Scene 4: Polonius spys on the conversation between Hamlet and the Queen and then is killed accidentally by Hamlet. The ghost then comes to tell Hamlet no to harm his mother. Scene 1 and 2: Claudius tells Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to find Hamlet and tell him to go to England. The Queen doesn't tell the King that Hamlet's madness is fake. Scene 3: Hamlet tells Claudius that he killed Polonius and then reveals that Polonius' body is under the stairs. Claudius arranges to have Hamlet murdered as soon as he arrives in England Scene 4: Hamlet comes across Fortinbras' army as they march across Denmark, and they explain that they are going to take over some land in Poland. Scene 5 and 6: Ophelia is going crazy and the Queen thinks that she is dangerous. Laertes finds out about his father's death. Hamlet is taken prisoner by pirates who deliver him back to Denmark. Scene 7: Laertes is upset that no one has been punished for his father's murder. The King tells Laertes that they should get revenge on Hamlet in a fencing match because the people love him. Ophelia dies. Scene 1: The gravediggers start to bury Ophelia. Hamlet and Horatio come to the graveyard and find the skull of Yorick, the old court jester. Laertes, the Queen and the King arrive at the graveyard and Laertes jumps into Ophelia's grave. Hamlet becomes angry and says that he loved Ophelia more. Scene 2: Hamlet tells Horatio that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead because he altered the King's letters. Hamlet agrees to a fencing match and thinks he will win. He apologizes to Laertes and then they fight. Gertrude drinks the poisoned wine meant as a backup plan for killing Hamlet. Hamlet and Laertes are wounded by the poisonous sword and Hamlet forces Claudius to drink the poison, killing him. Laertes then dies. Horatio tries to commit suicide but Hamlet doesn't let him because he needs Horatio to set his story straight. Hamlet gives the kingdom to Fortinbras and then dies. Themes Moral Corruption: People who posses power usually corrupt themselves, causing evil to spread to those around them. "Absolute power corrupts absolutely" Revenge: Seeking revenge never settles anything. It always ends in pain, sorrow and, in this case, death. Vengeance can start to control some one's life if they let it; it consumes them, and they can only focus on revenge. Quotes and explanations Quote: "There’s fennel for you, and columbines.—There’s rue for you, and here’s some for me. We may call it “herb of grace” o' Sundays.—Oh, you must wear your rue with a difference.—There’s a daisy. I would give you some violets, but they withered all when my father died." - Ophelia
Explanation: it shows her madness and uses symbolism through the flowers to represent moral corruption and the violets to represent faithfulness. Quote: "Why, as a woodcock to mine own springe, Osric. I am justly killed with mine own treachery." - Laertes
Explanation: It means that he was killed because of his own decision to poison the sword. It is significant because it leads to his making peace with Hamlet - he sees the consequences of his actions. It also shows the major theme that what you do comes back to haunt you Quote: "Good-night, sweet prince;/ And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest." - Horatio
Explanation: (After Hamlet dies) shows their religious beliefs and Horatio's true friendship. Directed towards Hamlet corpse. Quote: "Let my disclaiming from a purposed evil free me so far in your most generous thoughts that I have shot mine arrow o'er the house and hurt my brother." - Hamlet
Explanation: Hamlet is apologizing to Laertes about his father's death before they fight. It shows the parallels between Hamlet's situation and Laertes and how it has affected them. Quote: "Madness in great ones must not unwatched go." - Claudius
Explanation: It shows Claudius' respect for Hamlet and who Hamlet is. It also shows that he is suspicious of Hamlet's "madness" which leads to his actions against Hamlet. Quote: "The lady doth protest too much, methinks." -Gertrude
Explanation: She thinks that the player in the play is too dramatic. She doesn't want it to seem like she is not emotional enough about her husbands death. Quotes: "Neither a borrower nor a lender be, for loan oft loses both itself and friend, and borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry." - Polonius
Explanation: Polonius is giving Laertes advice before he leaves for school in Paris. He is saying that borrowing and lending things can end friendships and demonstrates Polonius' wisdom. Quote: "Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio, a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy. He hath borne me on his back a thousand times." - Hamlet
Explanations: Hamlet is holding Yorick's skull in his hands and remembers his childhood. It shows that death is inevitable and it makes all people equal. Quote: "Sweets to the sweet: farewell!" - Gertrude
Explanation: She is throwing flowers on Ophelia's grave. They are symbolic of love and innocence. She puts them on Ophelia's grave because she once wished that she would be Hamlet's wife. Quote: "Something is rotten in the state of Denmark." - Marcellus
Explanation: Marcellus is speaking about the ghost and it demonstrates that the ghost is restless and actively seeking revenge for his forgotten murder. It speaks of the impending doom upon the country Quote: "O! My offense is rank, it smells to heaven; it hath the primal eldest curse upon't. A brother's murder." - Claudius
Explanation: This confirms that the ghost is telling the truth. Claudius is not capable of repenting for his sins. He feels he will be eternally dammed for his actions but he can't bring himself to regret them. Shakespeare writes in blank verse using iambic pentameter to distinguish his more educated characters from the more common people.
He uses sophisticated and original vocabulary.
He writes a lot of soliloquies to convey the thoughts of the characters to the audience
He uses subplots to add to his themes, further the main plot and keep the reader involved Author's style Blank verse: Horatio - "in what particular thought to work, I know not; but, in the gross and scope of my opinion this bodes some strange eruption to our state."
Prose: Marcellus - "Peace, break thee off, look where it comes again."
Soliloquy: "To be or not to be..." Act 3 Scene 1
Diction: "Moist star" (moon) shark'ed up (recruited illegally) "vulgar" (ordinary) Examples Hamlet takes place mainly in Elsinore, Denmark. They are placed in Denmark but, because of Shakespeare's confusing subplots, there are many different settings. For example, the subplot of Fortinbras takes place in Norway. Also, Hamlet is on a ship for some time, traveling to England. Wherever the setting is, it sets the mood as being eerie, mysterious, tragic, dramatic, and scary. Setting The opening scene tends to set the tone for the rest of the play and, in the beginning of this play, it does. It starts with Marcellus, Bernardo, and Fransisco guarding the castle. It's dark, eerie and quiet. They then see a ghost which brings in the thought of death and tragedy from the very beginning. Significance of Opening Scene Hamlet is an Elizabethan tragedy, and tragedies are known for a dramatic ending in which all protagonists die. In the end of Hamlet, Claudius, Gertrude, Hamlet, Ophelia, Polonius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern all die. Tragic plays (especially from Shakespeare) end in death. Significance of Closing Scene Symbols ears and hearing Actors and the theatre Inky Cloak Violets Yorick's skull This represents tension and guilt. It shows Hamlet's grief over his father's death and his anger at his country. The flowers could symbolize both life and death - the natural order. People die but there are also joyous occasions in life - uncontrollable. Inevitability of death, decay of the body, no one can avoid death. Shows Hamlet's fascination with what happens after death The act of poisoning 1. (physically): Claudius poisons Hamlet in his ear, young Hamlet with a sword, Gertrude with the cup- causes death. It is a slow decay of body.
2. (morally): Poisoning the country with lies and poisoning minds with manipulation. Once done, it is hard to stop. Causes moral corruption or "death" (Claudius can't repent) Sickness/Struggle 1. Denmark: The country is "sick" or "unhealthy" because of corruption and secrets within the leadership. Poisoned by lies.
2. Hamlet: Hamlet is sick from worry and sadness and revenge. He cannot focus on anything else and there is conflict as well as internal struggle. Weeds Weeds might symbolize the choking of, or loss of, life. Weeds kill flowers and so the weeds of corruption lead to loss of life in the end. Corruption spreads - hard to control. Rottenness and Decay It can imply the decay of the health of the nation, with different deaths, managers and leaders. Also, it could be moral decay - as people go through life, the "right" thing becomes less and less important Beast or animal lust or sensual appetite Quote: "Thrift, thrift, Horatio! The funeral baked meats did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables. Would I had met my dearest foe in heaven or ever I had seen that day, Horatio." - Hamlet
Explanation: He is using very sarcastic humor here as he is talking to Horatio about how much he dislikes the fact that Claudius in marrying his mother. It develops the rivalry between Claudius and Hamlet. Appearance and Reality: Appearances can deceive people. Physically, a persons appearance can be deceiving, but even more so, especially in Hamlet, a persons character can be. We find out through many of the character's actions that people can turn out differently than you expect- their character and the way they act is deceiving. Mortality: Death is inevitable. This is not only a theme in Hamlet, but Shakespeare also emphasizes it by using symbols (Yorick's skull). In this tragedy, everyone dies which shows that death cannot be avoided, and you can't control when you die. For an easy-to-understand version/summary of Hamlet go here! http://nfs.sparknotes.com/hamlet/ Images of animal lust and sensual appetite highlight Hamlet's feeling of revulsion at the adulterous, incestuous relationship between his mother and his uncle. The carnal nature of their relationship is emphasised through a pattern of animal images. In his opening soliloquy the grieving Prince declares his disgust that even an animal lacking reasoning power would have mourned longer for its mate than Gertrude did for her dead husband.
Ears are symbolic of the method Claudius used to kill the old King Hamlet
words communicate ideas but also distort the truth and manipulate the people, "ear of Denmark" abused through lies It is ironic because the actors reveal the truth of the situation, they bring about the climax