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DNA replication, transcription, and translation for dummies

needed something to study for finals

Calen Niehoff

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of DNA replication, transcription, and translation for dummies

DNA Stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is the genetic material of an organism, stored in chromosones in the nucleus. DNA is Made up of units called nucleotides Phosphate
sugar (deoxyribose)
Nitrogen base Contain DNA Nucleotide looks like this: DNA is a molecule that has two strands twisted into a spiral shape. We therefore refer to DNA as "the double-helix" These strands are made out of nucleotides. There are only four nitrogenous bases in DNA Adenine Gunanine Thymine
Cytosine Each nucleotide has only one base, either A, T, G, or C. The bases bond in the center of the DNA molecule. Chargoff's rule states that A always bonds to T with double bonds
and G always bonds to C with triple bonds. A T G C CODE The sequence of these nitrogen bases is the "code" of DNA.
The DNA sequence on one strand of DNA tells you the sequence of the other. for instance: ATGCAAGGCC

TACGTTCCGA This genetic "code" tells the cell
how to build a protein, and proteins are the building blocks of many, many important molecules in the body. The structure of the DNA molecule was discovered in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick, though X-Ray crystallographer Rosalind Franklin contributed as well. When cells divide (a process called mitosis) a copy of the DNA must be put into the new cells. The process by which DNA makes a copy of itself is called "DNA replication", which occurs in the nucleus of cells. DNA The first step to copying the DNA is that the enzyme Helicase unwinds the DNA strand and unzips it along the center. Then, the enzyme DNA Polymerse reads the DNA strands and lays down matching nitrogenous bases. Finally, Helicase re-winds the DNA strands after zipping them back up. The result of this process is two DNA strands, both of them are half new, and half old. This model is referred to as Semi-Conservative replication of DNA DNA is a code for making protein.
When the cell requires a specific protein to be made,
the gene for that protein is found and copied into a message than we call RNA, which can leave the nucleus to go to a ribosome where proteins are made M replication DNA mRNA Transcription During this process, the enzyme Helicase unwinds and unzips
the DNA strand and then the enzyme RNA Polymerse copies
the DNA template into the mRNA message. The message then must recieve a cap and a Poly A Tail for protection from the cytoplasmic enzymes, then it leaves the nucleus and leaves straight from the ribosome. Translation mRNA proteins The ribosome reads the message, grabs amino acids
that match the mRNA three letter codes (called codons)
and begins building a chain of amino acids. When complete, the chain of amino acids will be a functional protein. RNA Thymine



nucleus Sidenote on transcription-
when the DNA transcribes to mRNA,
you change all of the Thymine bases
to Uracil bases. Uracil



cytoplasm Cytosine
carry "code" By Calen Niehoff
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